Spring works in the garden begin with pruning fruit trees.In March, when there is snow, trees rid of unnecessary branches and shoots, and the job at the beginning of the season gardeners consider most important.As a general rule, cut apples and pears.Stone fruit - plums, cherries - cut so far, although in some regions, and cut them.Based on the experience of our members of the forum, we will describe how and when to do it right.
Cutting off the plants, we reduce the amount of growth of the shoots.In a smaller number of points of growth comes more nutrients, so the plant is better to recovering from cold winter and better fruits afterwards.Ideally, each branch of the crown should have good access to light and air flow.
When the cut?
Most gardeners prune fruit trees in early spring while the plant is still "asleep" before the sap flow.By the way, growers in North America and many European countries cut their pear and apple trees in winter, but in most parts of the country this
winter is too harsh.
Consultant forumhouse.ru toliam1 believes that cutting can begin as soon as in your area go cold.
- at different latitudes Spring comes at different times.You can use this rule for pruning: to start it when bypassed frost below 10 degrees.It is important to have time before the start of sap flow, most likely before planting potatoes.
Consultant forumhouse.ru Sadovnik62:
- depending on the weather, when it is understand that the strongest sub-zero temperatures will not.But I personally follow these rules exclusively on the stone.A pome (apple, pear) can be cut at least until the end of June.The only thing - you need to take a break during the spring sap flow abundant.The branches in this period to cut raw and Shaggy cambial layers .... just mechanically difficult to cut without rags.
spring pruning is actively applied to saplings - groomed mature trees, which are subject to this procedure every year, every year need it less (we are not talking about the rejuvenation pruning).
When the seedlings of surviving their first winter, shaping the future of the tree, it shortened to 70-90 cm, cut the side shoots (pear, which is not as prone to thickening, leave 5-7 strong branches from apple - 4-5).Waste branches are cut as close to the trunk, but so as not to damage the bark.
The following spring the majority of the branches are removed, which look inside the crown: rubbing against each other, intersecting and just - obviously unnecessary.Several domestic branches may be left, shortening 3-4 buds.
All of last year's growth of skeletal branches are cut: the most powerful - half of the annual increment, and the rest - by two-thirds.Volochkova shoots and gains on the trunk, in the opinion of our members of the forum, it is better to remove the summer - so you'll reduce the stress of the spring crop.And all the wire, the cut is not necessary.
- Gyroscopes are not necessarily cut out all (or even wrong - a healthy tree will drive new).Some can be used to fill in bare crown.It is important to dislocate an acute angle (breakdown over the summer swims) and fasten in the desired location.Over time, they will take fruition.
Last bud on the branch, which will be before the cut-off should be viewed from the crown, not the inside.The fact that much looks kidney, and will grow to escape.
Trim crust should give the desired shape: spherical in which the tree grows and up and to the side, or if we're talking about shale Siberian cultures cup - raised edge, trunks lying on the ground.
adult fruit trees pruned very carefully: crop to outside buds annual growth, adjusting the shape of the crown strong external branches, trimmed interior.
tree, covered with lichen, just begs for gardeners pruning.
- Lichen adorns the trees, but they do not harm.Its presence in large numbers indicates that the humid air inside the crown, t. E., More likely, it is thickened and poorly ventilated.Make formative pruning - thin out and remove dead branches.
How to crop?
Pruning should be carried out so as to leave no stubs.And up to healthy wood: it is white, and damaged at the cut will be brown.The cut must be smooth.If you are using a hacksaw, cut trimmed garden knife.When pruning is necessary to cover all wounds (larger desyatikopeechnoy coins in young trees and dvuhrublevoy coins in adults), then they quickly overgrown, and they will not get Polypore mushrooms and various infections.Gloss over garden pitch or special tools.
- obscure slice should immediately after pruning.Take the rule: cut to the next tree does not fit, is not smeared previous.
To cut fruit plants need to remember the rule of 45 degrees.
- If the branch extends 45 degrees from the vertical - is optimal for growth and fruiting.Less than 45 - will be a strong growth at the expense of fruiting.More than 45 - is weak development, that's too bad.If you just mindlessly shortened - just always be no harvest, because the flower buds are found gains last year.
pruning stone fruit is somewhat different.Branches draining often grow close to each other up and quite abundant, they tie weights to direct them outwards rather than upwards.But the spring crop is the most effective way of formation of the plum tree.
Says forumchanin PipilatsMotors:
- I adhere to the scheme "three tiers": the first - 4 branches in the second branch -4 shifted by 45 degrees in the projections, and the tip - to the north.All unnecessary removed.The branches bend down to the tree laid the fruit buds.Skeletal branches bend is difficult, but possible yearling.I do not get attached weights, simply bend branches into the ring, and after midsummer let them go.More
spring pruning can be adjusted, this is the correct and effective way.Rezhesh that growing up, buds and twigs down the left.
Let us consider a few examples.
Consultant Sadovnik62 :
- All photos profukali the lower tier of the class.All flew up.If you do not reduce the crown, there is a good chance to become a climber.Apple trees in these photos will never yield were loaded, because at this angle of divergence of their faults would be a long time.Such angle of divergence for apple unacceptable.These apple shaped so that provoked the vegetation, rather than fruiting.To form the desired spreading crown, and you formed a broom.In this formirovke lower tiers have not received food and were eventually lost, the tree has fruit formation only at the top.Number of harvest on the volume of crown projection is small.
old tree that never truncated
Consultant under "fruit garden" of our forum Andrey Vasilyev :
- Bottom clean up is necessary, of course.Tops there are two, and one I would definitely deleted.Plus much thickened.But more than a third of the crown in the first year does not cut.Well, the crown would be good to translate into any side branch to not climbed up strongly.
Proper pruning apple
Andrey Vasilyev :
- cut like correct, did not see the stumps.Trees are quite strong.Gyroscopes can break out the summer until the green, it is easier and less harmful for the tree.To reduce the growth should be cut with a translation of a strong lateral branch growing, as horizontal as possible.Well, you need to cut a little every year, with regular pruning, this should not take long, and take a lot of effort.
new posts pryntsessa does not know how to form a tree, "Cherry griots Moscow looks like a bundle of twigs on a thin long barrel.The entire height of about 1.5 meters. "
Andrey Vasilyev :
- Put the cutting in the early spring (after the snow, or even in the snow).In young seedlings can shorten some branches, but usually removed thickening cherry branches and all.
Kleomenes complains about her husband: "Unknowingly and without consulting with experts, he lop all plums, although it is just 3 years old.Even I, a layman, it seemed too.This year plums gave a powerful growth (up to 1.5 m), I'm in shock!But even more I was shocked at these leaves increase.They are 2-3 times larger than in previous branches of leaves. "
- Judging by your pictures, I would even more lop.In my opinion, all too thickened.And on the young shoots leaves are larger - this is normal.The easiest, in my view, cut by the principle that the branches do not overlap each other and are not shaded, well and observe the desired shape of the crown.Plum usually accumulates well, and it is a pity to cut, so do not think you cut something extra.
Here are a few tips from a user of our forum Zaida :
1. Good branches, which is a pity to cut, you can reject in the right direction, tied to the other branch, a peg in the ground, loads and so on. N.
2. "hard" pruning can be carried out in stages: one-year cut a root branch to the next - another, and so on. d.
3. old apple tree sap flow increases, making deep slits with a sharp knife along the stem.
What should be the height of the tree?
correctly shaped fruit tree should not be too high.Configure it so that the harvest could without risking to fall down the stairs:
- at the height of admitting "not above a raised hand with the tool" because broken bones with age bad fuse.
ability to shape fruit trees still comes with experience.Consultant under "fruit garden" of our forum Andrey Vasilyev recommends visiting a special course at least one day.It is possible to understand the general principles of pruning that is very correct.The most important pruning - to understand why and how to cut.
lot of useful information on pruning and grafting fruit trees, you can learn here in this and here in this section of our forum.And here - just priceless video on this topic!