small waterfall can serve as a means of filtration or saturation of water with oxygen.Although the mini-waterfall and you can make a concrete pad or compressed, in a climate with cold winters better use of flexible strip, which will be located on top of natural stone.
butyl rubber and EPDM (ethylene propylene diene monomer - synthetic rubber) - are the two most suitable flexible material for garden ponds and waterfalls.Each of these materials are resistant to UV, and their service life is at least 20 years.EPDM and butyl rubber are usually sold 1,125mm thick, 1.5mm or 0.75mm.While the material thickness of 1.5mm longer resistant to puncture with a thicker material to work harder.Besides, if the excavation was performed properly in thicker materials it will not make much sense.
Laying of PVC (polyvinyl chloride) can also be used to waterfalls, however, this material is not as strong, so do not expect that your waterfall will last as long as if you were using a pad of butyl rubber or
gasket is also desirable to lay out the underlying layer, if you are not sure of the accuracy of the excavation work - the presence of sharp stones and other objects that could puncture the lining.As the underlying layer can be used newspapers (2.5 cm thick), cardboard, old carpet or fiberglass.In addition, in the stores where they sell gasket for ponds and waterfalls, there are special materials, lining or geothermal textiles.Special materials are generally more expensive than other materials at hand, but they are easier to install.
or cobble stones of different sizes will cover gasket when construction will be completed by the waterfall.Most of the horizontal surfaces between the stages of the waterfall is best to cover the small river stones the size of 1 - 7cm.One ton of these stones will be enough to cover about 9,29kv.m height of the mound is 5cm.To cover the edges of the channel and make better use of larger stones, pebbles.In about 40 ton boulders the size of 15 - 30cm.Waterfalls can be made of limestone stone / slabs, slate tiles or flat stones.Such materials are usually much more expensive and the required coating thickness is determined primarily the original thickness of the stone.
for recirculation of water from the main channel of the pond will need a pump.The size of the pump depends on the capacity (liters per hour per centimeter height (raising) the waterfall. To determine the size of the pump, in which he will be able to achieve the desired effect, proceed as follows: Using a garden hose, set the volume of water supply to the desired level of water above stepswaterfall. Fill a bucket capacity of 20 liters for a given volume of water flow, and the note the time - how many seconds it will take a full set of buckets. Divide 3,600 (number of seconds in an hour) by the number of seconds had gone to set the bucket, multiply that by 20 (the number of liters in a bucket) to determine the number of liters per hour. It is generally recommended that the size of the pump (delivery volume of water per hour) does not exceed the volume of the main pool. Submersible pumps are generally suitable for the majority of falls, however, surface pumps typically have greater bandwidth.
YesSystems that combine the process of removing substances / debris from the surface of the water, filtration and waterfalls.But the installation of such systems is necessary to consult a specialist.
to move the water from the main channel of the pond will be needed tubes.Before buying, check the size of the pipe outlet of the pump.Typically, 0.5-inch pipe can deliver up to 453l / h, ¾-inch pipe - up to 1323l / h, 1-inch pipe -up to 3780l / h, and the 1¼-inch pipe - up to 5670l / h.
to pump also need a source of electricity.Moreover, it should be located at a minimum distance of 1.2 m from the pond and should be closed waterproof casing.Surface pumps require dedicated channels.If you are planning to add lighting to the waterfall, it will be necessary to lay wires and at this stage of work.
insulating foam is used instead of mortar or concrete to fill the voids between the rocks and the stones and the gasket.The foam should be used only if necessary to direct the water in a certain direction.
Tools and equipment:
- Shovel for digging the channel;
- flat shovel to handle the edges of the channel and the outside steps of a waterfall;
- pegs and string to mark the future of the waterfall;
- rake for leveling horizontal surfaces;
- level to test the upper edge of the pond and the mound of stones;
- Manual tamping compaction freshly dug earth, which will be located in the path of water;
- Kamenotesnoe chisel to shape the rocks and cutting the recesses;
- gun for applying insulating foam;
- glasses to protect the eyes from splinters of stones;
- wheelbarrow for transporting stones and earth;
- garden hose;
- hammer to cut stones.
for the construction of the waterfall needs to be a change in the slope of land.It is worth noting that most of this bias is created artificially by digging the earth.Freshly dug ground will need to be compacted to a depth of 5-8sm to create appropriate support for the flow of water.To look natural waterfall, its level must begin at a certain height from the pond.
Step by step description
- Drain the water from the main pond.Remove rocks in the vicinity of the planned waterfall.
- Put the planned path of the water with the help of wooden pegs and ropes.Do not forget to mark the place of the upper pool, and each point level changes.
- Dig a channel for water.Start working from the existing pond and move to the upper pond.Ordinary shovel scoop channel, remove earth, flat shovel to give the necessary form the edges and bottom of the trench.Rake will need to align the base and remove stones and other debris / scraps from the bottom.Also, use a level to check the level of the upper edges of the pond, and the edges of each stage.In addition to the upper pool, the whole area should be placed at an angle to the main pond.The upper pond and other small ponds in the waterfall, if any, should be placed at a slight incline towards the main pond.
- Cover dug deepening the chosen material for the underlying layer.This material should not be stretches on top of the pond and the edges of the channel.
- Put a flexible gasket material.Unfold the fabric and let it warm in the sun about half an hour before placing in the channel, the gasket easier to lay down and conform to the shape of the channel.A minimum of 15cm pads should cover the lining of the existing pond.
- After installing the gasket material let the water run through the channel to check the levels and find possible leaks.So once everything is checked, remove the water and go to the next step.
- Spread first layer of stones, starting from the lowest point, going up.The first stones - is the foundation, they should be flat on the top and the bottom, as they are placed on the ledge of the pond and are the basis for the stones, which will drain the water in the pond.Stones, through which water will flow into the main pond should be slightly inclined towards the main pond.Use foam to attach to the laying of these stones.In order to mask the foam immediately after bonding roll to the protruding foam Zhmenya sand.The foam should be used wherever it is assumed that the water must flow over the stone, or it can flow underneath or to the side.After laying on the vertical surface of the channel Put small river stones on the horizontal surfaces of the channel.
- Using a garden hose fill the upper pond with water and check the water passes through all channels.Make final corrections, if necessary.Install lighting if it was planned.
- Using conductive pipe to length, coupled to submersible pumps, lower it into the main pond.Lay the conductive pipe to the upper pond along the canal.Connect the pump to the power supply.After testing the pump bury conductive tube by a few centimeters.Conductive pipe should be above the level of the upper pool, and it can help disguise laid around rocks.