main thing - to take into account at least the basic recommended settings for your own safety.
optimum slope stairs - up to 45 degrees, this is the case where less is more.The width of the stair well to match the size of the 45 th leg (at least 28-30 cm), so as not to fall off on the way down.At high magnification of this size you will inevitably bring down a step, and with a strong decrease find difficulty descent.The height of the stage (or riser podstupennika, whichever you prefer) must be no more than 20 cm. If the home has small children, be sure to arrange fencing (railings, pillars, balusters).
And if you do not have children, fences must be present and strong.Balusters installed at a maximum of 15 cm (it is the distance between their center points), when the thickness of 5 cm is reasonable to put two balusters on the stairs, a kind of stockade would not allow the child even stick his head.When the width of the staircase more than 110 cm, it is desirable to make additional fencing along the
Another important detail - the material from which made ladder.The first occurs when the word "ladder" association (at least for me) - the creaking and squeaking, as you know, a tree.Although nowadays there are many ways to relieve all sorts of wooden floors and stairs from scratches, emerged Association strongly imagination leaves no other options.Metal (it still has to be corrosion resistant), marble, granite - the materials are very good (and very expensive), but unfortunately, the cold and the winter in our middle band you know what.Wood also cheaper.
However, it does not tolerate extremes of temperature and humidity, which is why it is not recommended to put the expensive wooden staircase in unheated rooms (summer cottages, for example).In this case, it is best to use pine, the wood although milder, but more democratic relates to damage.For cottages and multi-level apartments it makes sense to choose oak, beech and larch.The last two are much cheaper oak, but the operation is not worse.
As for moisture, then there are special paints, leading to moisture and even the relentless struggle to win victories (most importantly - do not skimp on them).Varnishing and tinting the stairs need to carry vehicles having a maximum resistance to wear.Keep in mind that the darker the color tint in relation to the natural color of the wood, the less practical coverage.Defects occurring during use (dents from sharp heels, sand shoes, etc.), on a dark tone manifest faster and brighter.If we talk about the aesthetic preferences, it is the tree, because of its pliability all kinds of processing, is able to capture the features of any age and can be combined with anything - from glass to concrete.You can use different materials for load-bearing and ornamental designs.
So to summarize:
Basic requirements for the stairs as a functional element of the maximum convenience and reliability;
Convenient and safe approach is to lift and for descent;
convenient and safe location of the railing;
corresponds to the width and height of the steps a comfortable stride length and convenient instep;
functional width of a flight of stairs is determined bandwidth ladder, iethe number of people passing through the march at a time.
one passage is sufficient 0.6-0.7 m.
vnutrikvartirnyh width staircases must be at least 0.9-1.0 m, and in the houses of enhanced comfort - 1.25-1.5 m.The garden houses allowed the width of the march 0.7-0.8 m.
spiral staircases in the distance from the central rack must be at least 1.1 m. 1.5 m step width should be at least 100 mm.
relative magnitude of lifting march
To determine the size of the stairs, you must install its place on the plane and the height of the floor, select the ladder diagram and the sizes of the steps.Typically, the lead angle stairway is from 30 to 45 degrees.Ease of use ladders and related security guarantee depend mainly on the relative value of lifting the march (elevation angle).Elevation angle of the march can be set, knowing the location of the ladder in terms of height and space.
Practice found that a comfortable and secure ladder will be doubled if the height of the riser, the width of the folded stage (tread), equal to the average human step.Step length human plane is about 62-64 cm, convenient lifting legs 30-32 cm. Accordingly, the tread is defined by: 2A + B = 64 or A + B = 47 cm, where A - step height B - width of the tread.
most convenient for lifting from the ladder step height of 140 to 170 mm and a tread width of 340 to 370 mm.
Step height should be not more than 200 mm and less than 120 mm.Step edge (protrusion) must be of the order of 20-40 mm.The higher the setting, the tread should have, and vice versa.However, the width of the stage should be at least equal to its height.
Midline march - an imaginary line which runs straight marches in the middle of the width of the march, and in the curved staircase - at a distance of 40-50 cm from the edge of the span for spiral staircases - the axis of the central support.
Treads stages march curved bends have wedge-shaped, with the narrow side of the tread should be at least 140 cm.
Climbing the curved staircase, a man often deviates from the center line.To avoid such inconveniences, the stairs are constructed with dispersed stages with a constant change of the width along the entire length of the march.
passage height - the minimum vertical distance between the top edge of the tread and the lower edge of an upper structural element taking at least 1900-2000 mm.As you climb the stairs this size should be maintained.
spiral staircases Spiral staircases are decorative and most economical area.Structurally
spiral staircases are divided into several types.
first type - spiral staircases with no internal supporting pillars.
second type is a spiral staircase consisting of simple wedge-shaped steps, which rely on the wide end walls and narrow - on average the reference column.
third type is a spiral staircase to the inner and outer support rod own fence instead peremitralnyh walls.
The individual building the third most common type, t. To. Such a construction allows for precise assembly and at the same time ensures the stability of the entire system.
Position Calculation stages in spiral staircases made by turning around the axis of steps 22-23 degrees throughout the height of the rack based instep.
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