is known users forumhouse.ru, it depends on the reliability of the foundation of the strength and durability of the future home.Therefore, the choice should be approached thoughtfully and carefully weigh the "pros" and "cons".Any mistake made at this stage can lead to costly repairs and reduce the life of the house.
- Where to begin selection of the foundation, and it depends on the type of foundation wall material at home;
- As a primer on your site can influence the design of the foundation;
- What are the foundations and that is the strength of frost heaving;
- What if in the area - the so-called difficult terrain and high water table.
How to start a variety of foundation?
Before choosing a foundation, it is necessary to understand what it is and what function is performed.
Construction Consultant Roman Nikonov :
- You could say that the foundation - a gasket between the building and the ground.The foundation distributes the weight of the building to the ground.It is impor
1. Precipitation ground under the house should not exceed certain values.They are calculated according to special formulas depending on the weight and construction of the building, type of soil and its humidity and porosity.
These values are determined from samples obtained at engineering - geological survey.
2. The soil should not change the structure.For each soil is under ever-increasing load, there comes a time when the particles start to break or move relative to each other and the ground sags.Hence, under the foundation should be the pressure at which "breaks" foundation soil.
Often, when choosing a site for its future home, many developers are guided only by its price, and the presence of an area summed communication, but, in practice, one of the decisive factors when choosing a site for future development, and hence the foundation work shouldthe opportunity to become competent planning area.
engineer construction company fundamental.RF Andrew Pashuhin.
- Choosing a site for the house, it is desirable, in accordance with an understanding of how you plan to use later - namely a house and outbuildings to be erected on it.
Already at the initial stage it is necessary to choose the land for their own needs, rather than trying to build a house on a completely inappropriate for this site.
example - if initially planned to build a large stone house, and it is necessary to select an appropriate site.It must be greater boundaries house at least 10-15 meters and have primers with good bearing capacity.
It should be clearly understood that the more complex geology and soils at the site, the more expensive will cost the construction of the foundation.A foundation design should be determined on the basis of a feasibility study of the project at home and geological surveys to determine the type of soil.
main factors that determine what will be the construction of the foundation following:
- Characteristics future home and its design features;
- material from which to build a house;
The heavier the house and the more complex its structure, the more difficult and expensive foundation.
- soil type and slope of the site;
- level of ground water and the depth of soil freezing in winter.
Primer as a base home
Having the design of the house, you first need to understand what kind of soil in your area and, accordingly, what his bearing capacity.
- usually at the base of the building is several types of soil. For example, for the Moscow region - depth polnozaglublennogo foundation is considered to be in the magnitude of 1.5 meters. zone of influence of the foundation , ie depth, which will be significantly more pressure from the building - it is from 2 to 4.5 meters.This means that when calculating the foundation for heavy home, you need to consider the properties of the soil to a depth of 6 meters.Now imagine that at a depth of 3 meters is a layer of soft soil.He can not stand the additional load on the building.
On the strength of the soil affects the groundwater level : moist soils tend to be less strong than dry.A silty sand saturated with water - all can become "quicksand".
head of the company BAUBILD Alexander Zemskov:
- In id, properties and characteristics of the soil, are of paramount importance in the construction of the foundation for the house.
A selection of foundations, its size, and depth of the construction technology is based on data of geological research area.
At a high level of groundwater, it is desirable to make the drainage area and drainage around the house.
This reduced their level and thus decreases the saturation of ground water, which reduces the effect of frost heaving.
frost heaving is due to the fact that the water in the soil during freezing increases in volume.Under the action of this pressure, the ground shifts, which can lead to expulsion of the foundation outside its uneven tearing or lifting the house, and hence the deformation of the entire construction.
types of soils
When choosing a foundation for your future home, it is important to know what kind of soil is on your site, as well as to understand its bearing capacity and features that affect the design of the foundation material and workmanship at home.
- The main types of soil are:
rocky ground - composed of solid rock.
- does not compress under load.
- not require device foundation zaglublёnnogo.
Their carrying capacity is usually sufficient to keep the building, just delivered to them from above.
- is frozen to a great depth, compared with other types of soil.
That is necessary to insulate entries communications, and "cut" through the ground insulation of the building.
sandy soil - consist of a more or less large sand particles.
differ in size - large, medium-size, small, dusty.And density - dense, medium, loose.
- not prone to frost heaving.
- easy sealed.
- easy to crumble, so require serious work to strengthen the walls of trenches and pits,
peaty soils and vegetation layer
- may not be the basis structures.
That is, if in the bottom of the building comes a primer, you should: replace it with sand, making the sole foundation below the layer of the soil and pass it through with the help of pile foundation.
silty-clay soils - consist of a mixture of sand and clay particles in different proportions - sandy loam, loam and clay.
- held upright wall, which simplifies the earthworks.
- Are aquitard.
- Are heaving soils.
only study together the properties and characteristics of the soil will build a strong, reliable and durable foundation.
Since the foundation is the foundation of the building, its employees and support for transferring loads of the building to the ground, then there are 4 basic types of construction bases:
At a depth of laying the foundation to differ:
foundation of the house lay below the freezing depth in order to prevent deformation forces of frost heaving.Melkozaglublennye design for constructing buildings on light soils not subject to frost heaving.The greater the depth of laying the foundation, the more expensive it will cost construction of the foundation.
By the method of construction foundations can be divided into:
- constructing a solid foundation at the construction site of reinforced concrete.With the technology of the construction and use of high quality materials, they are considered the most durable and reliable.For prefabricated concrete elements ready to use: beams, slabs, blocks and so on. Combined foundations built from ready-made elements and the concrete factory solution.
- Foundations can be classified as follows:
With this type of foundation under the building corners, in places the greatest burden placed brick, concrete or wooden poles, buried to a depth of more than six meters, to frost heaving when it does not pull out from the ground.
These foundations often used in the construction of temporary structures and light.
Screw piles - this steel pipe with a screw at the end.They are screwed into the ground as a screw, and then put them on the structure.
most fabricated foundation.Lets put the foundation for sale in 60 - 80 square meters for a couple of days.
- quickly erected.
When the device such a foundation does not require excavation work.
- Limited service life - determined by the rate of corrosion of the blades breaking piles.
also piles can raise, becauseMetal is a good conductor cold, and the ground around the pile is frozen to a greater depth than around a traditional foundation.
bored pile - a hole in the ground by a length of 1.5 meters and a meter into which the fittings and poured concrete.
particular type of such a foundation is a pile TISE - the broadening of the bottom, which can increase the load bearing capacity of the pile, but can be completed successfully only in semi-solid and tugoplastichnyh clays.
- Lets put heavy house if directly under a layer of weak soil - then transmit the weight of the pile on a solid ground, which can be deep enough - the so-called"Pile-stand."
- Allows you to reduce the amount of excavation in comparison with any type of foundation, if the house - light.
- foundation in performing complicated and expensive device when driving in loose soils and fluids.
Requires geotechnical survey at a depth of more than ordinary foundations for country houses.
- This foundation is a single slab under the entire house - flat or ribbed, insulated - the so-called UWB or neuteplёnnuyu.One of the most versatile types of foundation.Very often the foundation of the "default" in the types of projects of country houses, as it can be installed without any special problems in all types of soils, except: wet silty sands "quicksands" fluid clay, bulk and peaty soils.
not require much penetration into the soil, which is particularly important at a high level of groundwater.
- For large buildings complex shape into a very complex structure.
- takes a lot of materials, especially in view of the sand cushion, filling the floor.
- Requires separate device structure of the cap, as is usually the ground level.
Such inconvenient to build the foundation for the houses on the slopes with a difference of heights of more than 1 meter for the whole length of the house.
is divided into two main types:
- Melkozaglublenny - MZLF.
Polnozaglublenny - made the entire depth of soil freezing - a calculated value, taking into account the type of buildings, soil, operating mode at home.
One of the most reliable types of foundation for the house of any shape, weight and space.
Importantly, the bearing capacity of the foundation is nearly independent of its reinforcement.
- easy to manufacture.
- Very high consumption of materials, since the inception of required below the freezing depth.
- complexity of the device at a high level of groundwater.
Melkozaglublenny foundation is a monolithic concrete beams on a sand cushion.
- This type of foundation is designed in the 60s of the 20th century, when it became clear that the bearing capacity polnozaglublennoy tape for light houses - excess, moreover, frost heave sometimes breaks such foundations,if they are made in violation of technologies, such as embedded in the ground, without formwork.
- For the construction of this type of foundation requires less material than polnozaglublennoy tape.
- opportunity to make such a foundation at a high level of groundwater.
- low hardness (very frequent cases of cracks in structures of houses from small materials - bricks and blocks, mounted on such foundations) .
- high quality requirements for reinforcement.
- Required drainage and sand cushion.
But what if the site consists of a so-called difficult terrain, such as high groundwater table and a large vertical drop?
- A high groundwater level should be used melkozaglublennye foundations.The meaning of the foundation of training is to ensure full contact with the ground foundation, and in some cases, improve the bearing capacity of the soil to values corresponding to a calculated.
If laid shallow foundation, make sure the device is insulated blind area.This will ensure a stable position of the foundation soil and eliminate swelling.In other cases, the device is sufficient neuteplёnnoy blind area for the diversion of rainwater from the foundation to prevent it from flooding.
important to remember that at the design stage of the foundation, on the site you need to think about what the large slope would require measures to "anchoring" and planning, and the presence of groundwater at a high level and reducing it will require diversion.
- Very often there are areas with a significant bias on the one hand it is a plus to the design point of view, then you can build interesting landscaping.