No matter what material will be built staircase, first of all, it must be reliable and convenient.
To achieve this, one must first understand its design features and take into account all the details.
from our material users forumhouse.ru know:
- Which ladder can be called comfortable?
- What are the types of stairs?
- What is the string, balusters, kosour, treads, risers?
- How to start the calculation of the stairs?
- What features should be considered when mounting the stairs in a wooden house?
- What you need to know about the monolithic stairs?
Features of designing stairs
When designing the ladder should consider the following factors:
- design of the house and premises;
- space allotted under the stairs;
is necessary to take into account the size of the opening of the second (third) floor, ceiling height, floor thickness.
- material from which the house is built, and built the walls, ceiling and floor.
often in pursuit of design refinements, the developers forget about the main p
is therefore necessary to think in advance:
- where and how will be placed a ladder;
- material from which it will produce;
- what area it will occupy in the house.
Worst of all, if you have to "enter" a ladder into an already built house: often have to compromise between functionality and convenience.The result is a ladder by which uncomfortable and not safe to walk.
If a calculation of the stairs began at the stage of designing the house, it is possible to move virtual walls, change the layout of the rooms, change the location of door and window openings, and thus subsequently as efficiently as possible to install a staircase in the house.
best to position the ladder so that it connects several rooms at the same time, and did not go into a corner or in a closed room.
When designing the stairs should be remembered that:
1. For the convenience of walking up the stairs of her lifting angle should not exceed 45 degrees.
2. If the ladder is installed in the lobby, you should think in advance the size of the opening in the concrete floor, and in the case of a wooden house - the location and bearing support beams.
3. If for any reason the design of the staircase is postponed to a later stage of construction, the minimum dimensions of the opening amount:
- aperture width - 1 meter.
- length of the opening - ceiling height + thickness of the slab of the second floor.
Floor beams in the house you need to start up along rather than across the aperture of the alleged ladder!
- Before the calculation of the ladder in the first place, you need to imagine how it will look in the finished form, and see if it will fit in the interior of the house.
ladder to get the most comfortable in front of it calculation should know:
- height from the finished floor of the first floor to the finished floor of the second floor;
- aperture length of the ladder;
- aperture width of the ladder;
- thickness of the floor;
- the direction of the stairs;
- material from which it is planned to make the ladder becausethere are some moments when the material determines the final design of the stairs.
Key elements of stairs
What are the main types of ladders and their elements:
- spiral staircase.This is a vertical, circular staircase rotated by 270 degrees or more.The main bearing element in it is the B-pillar, to which are attached in a spiral stage.This staircase is considered the most compact, but at the same time uncomfortable because of her hard climb elderly and drag oversized cargo.
- Staircase with goose-stepping.Its stages have non-standard shape - slanting or oval cutouts.They can fully fit a foot of one leg.This ladder is suitable for installation in confined spaces.
- Saddle stairs - steps that support the bottom beams (stringers) on both sides.
stringers - a supporting beam staircases, which are based on top level.
- staircase on the string - it supports both steps below, and ends with a bowstring.
Bowstring - a flight of stairs carrying bar, which is adjacent to the side of the stairs.
- tread - horizontal part of the stage without overhang.
- baluster - support column railing, made in the form of a columnar shape.It is produced by turning, concrete or cast into a mold.
- Balustrade - railing staircase or balcony above the staircase.
- risers - the vertical element, which is based stage.It is used as additional support for the tread.It increases rigidity of the structure and helps to visually distinguish between the interval between the steps.
- stairway - straight stairs without winders.
flight of stairs - the distance between two landings.The recommended number of steps in one march - no more than 15.
- Staircase with zabezhnymi steps.
- ladder with swivel platform.It has spacer elements (turntable) between flights, which are arranged horizontally (in the beginning or the end of March) and serve for the input or output on March therefrom.
the last two designs ladders dwell, becauseThey are the most common.
company representative «Shop ladders» Eugene Fedyaev :
- winders subjective look prettier than the marketplace.As well as saving space.
space saving is obtained in step stages, because in one turn is usually placed three stages.Stairs to the ground much easier and more comfortable to use.
Eugene Fedyaev :
- The fact that the winders radiate from the ladder rotation, respectively, closer to the center, they are narrowed, that initially presents some inconvenience.
need to get used to the fact that on a ladder with zabezhnymi steps have bottlenecks.The site also lacks such a "flaw."
There are also a number of special formulas, which can determine the parameters and user-friendliness of the stairs.
When working with them, it should be remembered that:
- width of the tread should be between 250-300 mm;
- step height should be between 150-200 mm.
When other parameters ladder can be uncomfortable or even dangerous!
- When there is enough space, and the parameters of steps fit into the above rules, it is better to make a ladder with a platform.
If the design turns out that the site reduces tread width less than 250 mm and the height of the step is raised higher than 200 mm, the pad should be replaced zabezhnymi steps.
Can you make yourself comfortable prikidochny calculation ladders?
Referring to the experience of members of the forum.For example, given the size of the finished floor heights from one floor to the finished floor of the second floor, you can estimate how many steps we have together in this segment.
- Sam calculation looks like this:
For example, the height between the floors have is 3000 mm.A range of convenient height levels is 150 mm to 200 mm.On average, it turns out 175 mm.
dividing the total height (3000 mm) on average (175 mm), we obtain - 17.14 levels.
Features stairs in wood and stone houses
Features stairs are directly dependent on the material from which made the house.According to our forum user with the nickname sonder RZN, if the house - a wooden, then a staircase in it should be made of this material.
Alexander Toporov (nick Offline 44alex) :
- In my opinion, in a stone house is better to make a monolithic concrete stairs.
first consider the peculiarities of stairs in wooden houses.The head of the carpentry workshop Avtor, cabinetmaker Denis Andreev:
- Wooden house, as opposed to brick or concrete, with time shrinks.It can be up to 100 mm.To avoid deformation of the ladder, it is necessary to "untie" with support elements of a wooden house.
You can also fix the stairs, using the slide fasteners.
Special requirements for wood used in the manufacture of stairs.
Eugene Fedyaev :
- Main requirements that apply to wood - the degree of its moisture.
wood must be dry and have no more than 8-10% humidity.
- For the manufacture of stairs, especially steps to use solid wood.For example: larch, oak, beech, maple.
pine or linden - a soft material.Because the stairs are exposed daily to the increased abrasive loads, they quickly come into disrepair.
For greater reliability in the design used wood grained and knotless.However, in some cases, for interior in the style of "country" or "Provence", you can use wood with knots and even cracked, the main thing is - comply with the technology of wood processing.
Once all the wooden elements of the ladder are made, made a rough cut.During this assembly, a final fitting and adjustment of all parts is tested geometry design and ease of movement of the stairs.Then dismantle the stairs and before finishing the assembly of color.However, not all coating materials are suitable for this work.
- Varnishes and oils should be used for finishing the special, hard and resistant to abrasion.
If the ladder is based in the ever-heated house, the antiseptic process it is not necessary.
Eugene Fedyaev :
- Before the final assembly of the ladder it is usually coated with polyurethane varnish and toning.
Any ladder will last a long time, if it is properly designed, manufactured and installed.
Regarding the monolithic stairs, then there are also a number of features.
monolithic staircase - reinforced bearing structure made of reinforced concrete, to fill which, in turn, is required to make pre-timbering.
- at the stage of construction of the house is necessary to provide mortgages under the monolithic staircase.It is also desirable, together with the side walls of masonry, cast pad and make issues out of her fittings for themselves staircases of 30-40 cm.
If mortgages were not provided in advance, the increased volume of work, asnecessary to manufacture additional fasteners.
Construction monolithic stairs can be divided into several stages:
1. We expect the height and width of steps.
2. make a preliminary layout.
3. Putting the foundation of the boards for formwork.
4. Knit reinforcement.
- Monolithic stairs calculated under load two times greater than the overlap.Working reinforcement should be as close as possible to the edge of the march, but no closer than 2 cm.
optimum width of a flight of stairs - 1200 mm.Minimum - 900 mm.
- After pouring concrete formwork and curing steps is better not to take the stairs up to finishing.Either you need to provide some temporary lining the stage - or the concrete will be erased, and the corners of steps - to break away.
most common solid plastered stairs and steps are lined with wooden or stone plates.
What to consider when installing a monolithic staircase:
- If you intend to final finishing of walls, it is not a flight of stairs should be placed close to the wall, otherwise the wall then it will be difficult to plaster, plasterboard and to sew, etc.
- If walls of the house are made of soft materials: concrete, foam concrete, arbolit, in places where they will build a reference channel ladder is necessary to provide additional support from a brick.
- thickness of finishing floor must be considered before mounting the stairs.
If this is not provided in advance, the increase in the thickness of the floor will reduce the height of the first step.
All information about the manufacture of stairs collected in this section.How to build your own wood Saddle stairs, forumhouse.ru users can learn in this topic.What are choosing Gameday - stairs with zabezhnymi steps or turntable?The answer can be read here.There Gameday answer questions related to the concrete stairs.Photo report on the construction of monolithic staircase is available at this link.