Japan - a country of ancient traditions.Features of mentality and culture influence the way the construction of a country house.
If our understanding of the house - it is often a stone fortress, the Japanese have a completely different approach.
In most cases, a country house in Japan is going on frame technology.
Hence the apparent fragility and the fragility of this construction.
But, according to the Japanese, but this technology allows you to create homes that are a continuation of nature."Do no harm" - that's the slogan that hold Japanese builders.
begin exploration of a large-scale excavation work - not an option for the Japanese.Import and export of cubic meters of sand, gravel, earth is not welcome.Japanese architects and builders more than puzzled by how "fit" the house into the landscape so that as little as possible to use heavy equipment.Even the traditional Japanese homes are fundamentally different from anything that comes to mind when the phrase "country house".
We have already talked about FORUMHOUSE users of the website features the construction of frame houses in Japan.The climatic conditions of the country impose restrictions on well-proven technology.The devastating earthquake, tsunami threat, high humidity and strong winds forced the Japanese to develop their own - distinct - approach to construction.
Why build heavy stone house, which can be completely destroyed by an earthquake in 7-8 or hurricane winds?After all, he still can not resist the pressure of the elements.In addition, if such a structure collapses, it pogrebёt under an all tenants.Private houses in Japan are prefabricated wooden structures.As conceived by the Japanese, the service life of the house is from 10 to 20 years, after which it is either morally obsolete and will have to be repaired.The Japanese, instead of endless rework and dostraivaniya prefer to completely demolish the house and build in its place a more modern home.
major Japanese phenomenon of suburban construction is that the house, as well as apartments, over time, only cheaper.For example, if a family moves into a new apartment in a high-rise building, in a year the price for it drops.The principle of "build now cheaper - selling more expensive tomorrow" is not working.Apartments and houses are bought on credit for 30 years or more, at 2-3% per annum.Value is only building land.
Therefore, part of the Japanese prefer not to buy and remove housing.This is especially common among unmarried employees and middle managers.Rent an apartment can only be resorted to the services of the agency.Apartments are usually rented for 1 year.After that, if the tenants and landlords are satisfied, extended lease and the rent is not changed for many years.
Also of great interest is the traditional Japanese house and the way it was built.The basis of the house is a wooden platform on which rests the columns of timber.The foundation is often the simplest - columnar, no basement, there is a technical underground, height 0.5 meters from the ground, which hosts all the necessary communications.
The roof has a large overhang.This protects the wall from rain and sun.As a roofing clay tile used.
Warming houses often lacking.Walls such as we have made in the traditional Japanese house and not.The spaces between the columns closed wooden frame made of slats that are glued tight, resistant to wind and moisture rice paper.And although in recent years to replace the paper came more modern materials - glass and wooden wall panels, many Japanese prefer to use the handmade paper.
Panels should focus.In fact, a traditional Japanese house is one big room with no rooms.Certain seats are reserved only for the kitchen, toilet and bathroom.Zoning space is carried out using all the same wooden partitions, which are inserted into grooves.If necessary, the partition is shifted or completely removed.Thus, the internal space of the house is constantly changing.Head office of the family need?The partitions are shifted, and receive a small cozy room where you can sit with your laptop.The guests - partitions are removed, and several rooms converted into one large room.The owners decided to go to bed, partitions again set in place, and it turns out bedroom.
Any room, depending on the mood of the owners of the house and need can become the living room, dining room or nursery.
cabinets, solid furniture is also available.All items are stored in the wall niches, lockable all the same partitions.In addition to interior walls, easily cleaned and external.This is due to the mentality of the Japanese, who like to feel at one with nature.It turns out that the house was thrown open to the outside, but its interior space becomes an extension of the landscape in the area.In the case of wind or rain, partitions quickly set in place.
This approach allows you to adjust the cottage and build landscape for memorable home with his face.
area of a standard Japanese house is from 120 to 150 square meters.meters.More than two-floor building is not accepted.Attic space is used as one large room.Arrange living rooms there is usually no one comes to mind.The average area of apartments ranges from 60 to 70 square meters.m for married Japanese and 30-50 square meters.m for singles (in this case the apartment is used as a place to sleep and rest).Moreover, the area is not measured in square meters, and in the traditional Japanese unit of measurement - tatami .It equals 180h90 cm. Number of rooms in the apartment or house is designated - «2LDK», where:
- L - Living.This is the main characteristic that affects the value of the property.
- D- Dining room.
- K - Kitchen.
The fact that the house has a bathroom and toilet are usually not written, but by default the apartment or house without these facilities are not for sale.
Everyone is familiar with the Japanese passion for purity.When entering a Japanese house take off your shoes and put her on a special platform, located just below the floor level.
particular interest are the bathroom and toilet, which are always made in separate premises.
Moreover, the Japanese tend to place the toilet in an inconspicuous place, away from living rooms.The passion for purity comes to that when visiting the toilet decided to use special plastic slippers in which change shoes when visiting the premises.
The bathroom is often installed a washing machine, and a room full waterproofing.This is done for the following reason.Japanese are accustomed from childhood to save all resources.
water is no exception.A hot bath - national tradition, but to reach sewage that water is not accepted.After the bath, the Japanese out of it, getting on the floor and clean the shower.
Thus, the bath water is not mixed with the lather and reused, for example for washing laundry or referred to in the toilet cistern.
Another local feature - a rejection of the mixer with hot and cold water.In the bath or kitchen put two cranes - one with cold water, the other with a warm, heated to a comfortable temperature.As needed, switched on or the first or second.Lean Japanese believe that it reduces energy consumption, asnot necessary to heat the water to a high temperature and then dilute it cold.
The apartments, as well as in the home can be made only cold water. water is heated in a gas or electric boiler.
Despite the lack of harsh winters (except Hokkaido Prefecture), in winter it is necessary to heat the house.In Japan is not popular with heating boilers and stationary coolant radiators.
Japanese homes often heated individual portable gas or kerosene heaters.Although one of the main disadvantages of such heating is a light smell of burning fuel and the need to ventilate the room, the Japanese are willing to put up with these disadvantages of the high cost of the central gas supply or the gas tank installation at the site.Also popular electric heating, for example, air conditioning, working in the summer / winter mode, and infrared heaters.
Often, these heaters are in the form of pictures and hung on the walls of the house, so that at a glance, and can not define it - heating element.In addition, very popular electric mats, where you can sit or lie down, dragging them with him at home.
Japanese mains voltage of 100 V at a frequency of 50-60 Hz.
distinctive feature of the Japanese is that they live "in the plane of the floor."For example, a family dinner often passes for one low table, behind which arranged all households, not sitting in chairs, and firmly shot down pillows.These tables ( «Kotatsu» ) equipped with an electric heater.In the cold season, dinner for such a table, it is covered with quilted blanket under which everyone slips up.It is believed that it combines all family members, moreover, are so much warmer.
to keep warm at night, the Japanese wear thermal underwear and lodge electric blankets.Thus, concerns about heating fully borne by the Japanese kvartiro- and homeowners.
Summarizing, we can say that the traditional Japanese house - it is unusual to Western homeowners purely utilitarian housing.The Japanese and not divide the world into internal and external.The house should have an aura similar to the place where it is being built.Traditional Japanese house includes five components:
- minimalist things and the interior;
- use of environmentally friendly materials;
- maximum functionality and integration into the landscape.
Japanese refer to their home as a living being, spiritualizing it.According to their mentality, but such approach allows to achieve harmony without destroying nature.
Learn all the details of the construction budget for the Japanese home users can FORUMHOUSE from this thread.To learn how to build stone houses in Europe, told here.If you want to learn how to build karkasniki in America, you can click on this link.And watch this video, you can clearly satisfied that all house-Geosphere - it's great and unusual!