- risers are laid strictly on a plumb;
- in two-pipe system supplying a riser on the right side (looking at the wall), and the return on the left side;
- is necessary to maintain the following distances between the axes of the risers and the wall: 35 mm with a diameter risers to 1 1/4 inches, inclusive, and 50 mm diameter risers 11/2 inches and 2 inches;tolerance +5 mm;
- the distance between the axles passing near supply and return risers should be 80 mm with a diameter riser pipes up to 1 1/4 inches;for large diameters the specified distance is received from the convenience of the mounting conditions;
- struts attach to walls collars at height of 1,5-1,8 m from the floor;on each floor should have to one attachment point.
Since struts at heating are extended and their some movement connected with this phenomenon may result in damage to the plaster in places of passage through the riser slab, it is necessary in these areas to pass
Open pipeline to connect couplings, flanges or by welding.Installation of hidden pipelines only welding.Threaded pipe connection requires to be connected to the cutting thread detail.The thread can be inside and outside.
on bolts, studs, pipes, rods and different other cylindrical details cut an external thread;in molded parts, in flanges for finned tubes, radiator caps, nuts, details of cars and metal designs cut a female thread.
Key elements of threads shown in Fig.These include the following: Thread pitch - the distance between the tops or bottoms of two adjacent coils;Thread depth - the distance from the top of the thread to its foundation;included angle - the angle enclosed between the sides of the profile in the plane of the axis;external diameter - the largest diameter of the screw thread (tube), as measured at right angles to the thread crest of the thread axis;inside diameter - distance equal to the diameter of the cylinder on which the thread is screwed threads.
carving on the system of measures share on metric and inch.
Metric thread a profile view of an equilateral triangle with an apex angle equal to 60 °.The tops of the projections of the mating screw and nut cut.Characterized metric thread diameter of the screw in millimeters and the pitch of the thread in millimeters.
Whitworth thread has a profile in the same form as the metric thread, but it is the apex angle of 55 °.It characterized the number of threads per inch thread and the outer diameter in inches or fractions of an inch.Whitworth thread is divided into pipe and fixing.
Systems threads: a - metric thread;b - inch thread
have pipe thread rounded profile (Fig. 76), but is also used with threads ploskosrezannym profile (Fig. 7a).Diameter pipe thread is conventionally considered a nominal internal diameter of the pipe.
Types of pipe thread: a - pipe thread with ploskosrezannym profile;b - pipe thread with a rounded profile
Pipe thread 1/2 and 3/4 inch has 14 threads per inch, and from 1 inches and above - 11 threads per inch.
have pipe threads last two threads have incomplete cutting - so-called sbeg used for jamming the end of a fitting screwed onto the pipe.Such connection collected on linen strands with a mixture of minium and natural drying oil, possesses good tightness.
When piping used both long and short pipe threads.Long thread allows to receive folding type of connection - eviction.
thread on pipes usually cut into the die stock with sliding dies.On pipes
1/2 and 3/4 inch thread convenient to cut the die stock Majewski.
die stock Majewski
die stock Majewski consists of a housing 1 with a window into which the two sliding dies 2, dockable hard cover 4. Position dies in nests is fixed by screws to the housing 3. The die stock guide flange 7 is attached, inIt sets removable for each diameter of pipe guides 6. Complete dies are designed for every diameter pipes.When the rotating die stock handles 5. Correct installation of dies is achieved by ticks and numbers stamped on the plates and on the body die stock.
die stock Majewski advantage is its simple construction, it contributes to the rapid change of dies, as well as light weight.It is particularly convenient to operate the die stock Majewski when tapping on pipes of small diameter.
Widespread received so-called trumpet die stock designed for threading diameters from 1/2 to 2 inches.
Pipe die stock
design pipe die stock is shown in the figure.The cast iron housing 9 tool on the one hand there are three rectangular holes for guiding the rams 3, 1 on the other hand - for the four cutting dies 1. The plates are fixed pins 5, which are movable in grooves of two rings, namely a ring 6 for guiding the diceand a ring 7 for cutting dies.The grooves have a helical shape through the dies by turning movable rings move radially, respectively, the desired diameter of the thread.Adjustable rings are attached to the body of the die stock clamping rings 10 and 11. For the locking rings are movable screws 1 and 8. In the body die stock screwed two handles 2 with which the tool is rotated during operation.
die stock has two sets of plates: threading 1/2 and 3/4 inch thread diameter of 1.11 / 4, 11/2 and 2 inches.Plates cut first set on the one hand, and the second - on both sides.On the plates (as well as on the body die stock), the digits for which you are installing the dice.On the bill of divorce ring 6 there are risks showing position of this ring when tapping the desired diameter.
thread diameter of 1/2 and 3/4 inch tube die stock is cut in one pass, and a larger diameter - for two passes.Getting threading tube, pipe clamped in the nip and smeared it in the place of cutting with drying oil or lubricating oil.Die stock put on the tube (the locking screws must be turned inside out) and easy blows of a wooden mallet on the handle of the clamping ring reduce closely to a pipe directing dies.By doing this, fix the guide die locking screw.In the same way establish and fix cutting dies, in line with the risks corresponding to the diameter of the thread cutting.
die stock work by turning it clockwise while pushing it forward.To remove the die stock with pipe rams are bred.
Pipe die stock requires careful maintenance.Every day after work, it must be disassembled, cleaned and lubricated.
internal thread cut tap.The tool is a tap screw with several longitudinal grooves forming cutting edges.At a tap distinguish a working part of the shank 1 and 4, the working part is subdivided into the intake 2 and calibrating 3. Fence portion having a conical shape, makes the basic work of cutting.Shank with a head 5 fix a tap in a tap wrench or a chuck of the machine.
Taps: And - a tap and its basic parts;b - set of hand taps
Taps are subdivided on manual and machine.At Hand tap shank square shape.Cutting the basic metric and inch carving is done manually set of three taps (see. Fig.) And metric fine threads and pipe - a set of two taps.The sequence of application of taps determined by the number of ticks A deposited on the shank.Tap large room has a full thread.To use the tap is inserted into the knob.Before introducing it into the hole, the last counterbore.When tapping each turn of the tap into the working side is often accompanied by a turn in the opposite direction, in order to break the chips and the tap is not jammed in the hole.
When threading die stock, and there may be tapping thread to thread torn and incomplete (stupid) carving.
- The first type of marriage may be due to insufficient lubrication, application stupid (badly perfected) dies or taps, improper installation dies in the die stock, as well as the result of excessively deep cutting at the first pass.
- Stupid (incomplete) thread is obtained when the outer diameter of a cut detail falls outside the limits the minus admission or when inflated diameter holes for thread.
Piping diameter up to 2 inches are generally collected by means of connecting fittings having an internal thread with reinforcement in many cases - taps, valves and the like. D.
assembly method, or else - convolution depend on the speciescarving at pipes, fittings and valves.When the cylindrical thread convolution is performed using the sealing material to reliably prevent leakage in the threaded joint.
as a sealing material use the linen lock impregnated with minium or whitewash, mixed on natural drying oil.
Applied linen lock should be pure - without any admixture of hemp and hemp.Before superimpose it on the thread, a strand untwist so that it can be placed evenly between the grooves of the thread and to separate strands of yarn is more or less separated from each other.
grease a carving with minium or whitewash, reel up on it rassuchennuyu strand from left to right (ie. E. Clockwise), going from the beginning of the thread and to the end - run-out.It is necessary to ensure that the yarn strands do not fall on the first line of the thread, and the ends of the strands - the inside of the pipe.
reeled lock coat with minium or whitewash, then navertyvayut shaped part or armature: at first by hand and then tong.
For dense, tight connection is necessary to carry out one obligatory rule: a shaped part or armature need navertyvat pipe to failure, t. E. So that it is jammed in the last two tapered threads (Escape) thread.It is therefore very important for the connection of pipes with shaped parts and fittings withstand length of the threaded portion on the pipe, which is dependent on the pipe diameter.Value is such:
manifold assembly and joining them to devices using just the short threads are not feasible.At installation of such pipelines arrange by means of pipes with a long carving on one end of - ebbs - plug connections used also at dismantling of pipelines for repair.
for these compounds (see. Fig.) Is cut at the end of the tube in contact with the sleeves, usually short thread.The length of the long threads (not counting the runout) in the sleeves should be sufficient in order to be able to screw on it a counternut and then the clutch.Length Thread length:
pipe connection using Squeegee done so.
- locknut and clutch navertyvayut a long thread without seal and without spreads minium or whitewash.Short thread at the second pipe prepare with consolidation and pasting minium or whitewash, then the clutch roll (rounded up) with a long carving so that it to failure welled up in a short thread.
- However, if you leave the connection in the form in which it turned out, it was bound to leak, as from a long thread coupling has no gaskets and is not jammed in the thread run-out.Consequently, at this point it is also necessary to create a seal.It is performed using a linen strands, but not rassuchennoy and prepared in the form of flagella, greased with minium or whitewash.Flagellum navertyvayut ring on the pipe at the edge of the sleeve and locknut strongly pressed against the clutch: a lock gets to a facet specially carved inside the locknut.If the coupling between the lock nut and no skew and their ends are flush with each other, the connection gets enough impenetrable.
- emphasized above that one of the main conditions for obtaining a tight connection - is a reliable jamming of the fitting or valve on the pipe thread runout.Therefore, in no case can not be fed back to screw fitting.If at the connection device happens so that the screw on the tee or cross, square or the crane have not taken the required position, then you can fix it, only to make additional partial turn in the course of the thread.In the absence of such a possibility should be raskontrit sleeves on both sides of the fitting or the crane and try to give the latter the right direction.Having achieved this, connect the sleeves again.
- After convolution cut off the superfluous strand protruding from the thread.
clotting pipes and fittings made of special pipe wrench.The most commonly used two-lever key, which levers 1 and 2 come to an end with a notch jaws to grip the pipe or fitting.The lever 2 has cutting and can be moved by means of nut 3. Turn nut to the right sponges of levers pull together, the rotation of the left - bred.So the key is adapted to the diameter of the pipe.
and - Double Wishbone;b - key system Volevach
Key Features double lever that moves when the lever 2, sponges of both levers remain parallel to each other.This allows you to use a key for screwing the screws, lock nuts and fittings.However, the presence of two levers - the lack of a key.It is quite heavy in weight, in addition to press levers to each other by one hand, is required to expend considerable effort.The figure below shows the key Volevach.
key consists of the following basic parts: the lever 7, the top sponge 1, lower sponge 2, a nut 6, the liner 5 and two springs 3 and 4. The lever 7 consists of a bracket and welded to handle it.The lower fixed bracket fixed jaw 2 and springs 3 and 4. The nut 6, the bushing 5 and the upper jaw shank 1 have a trapezoidal thread.Turn the nut 6, you can raise or lower the top sponge and thus the key to change the divorce, depending on the diameter of collapsible tubes and fittings.The springs provide an opportunity to reject the top sponge forward or backward at an angle of 20 ° (because of this, you can turn the key, without removing it from the details).
To fix collapsible pipeline components used conventional two column screw clamps.
1 - check;2 - hole;3 - clamping screw;4 - clamping prism
Screwless steel pipes are usually joined by means of an electric or gas welding.
Welds have several advantages over welded joints are not:
- pipe joints, welding, significantly more durable compounds obtained by other means;
- when connecting pipes welding there is no need in the flanges, bolts, couplings and seals, which gives great savings in material and labor costs;
- at the device of welded pipes are not necessary fittings, tees and crosses are formed by welding of one pipe to another;
- operation of welded pipeline is considerably facilitated, as in welded connections possibility of leakage is almost excluded.