more than 30 years of experience in the successful operation of the heat pump abroad, including - in the countries where the climatic conditions are similar to Russian, confirmed the high reliability and efficiency of the equipment.This, as well as the growth of tariffs for energy resources allow us to speak about the prospects of its application in our country.
object types, equipped with heat pump, can be considered as a country house of about 200-250 m2.
Choosing heat from the heat pump, the user wishes to install this covers all the needs for heat.The conditions in most regions of the country to ensure this is possible only by using low-grade heat sources with a high enough temperature at any time of the year: the ground below freezing, underground sources of water and open water.A heat pump type "air-water" can be used only in combination with other heat generators - electric, gas, liquid or solid fuel boiler (bivalent operation).
We can say that both home and abroad, the largest
advantage of horizontal collector - a relatively low cost of its organization: about 2.5 thousand. Euros for the heat pump capacity of 13 kW.However, its organization needs a free plot of land of about 4.5 weave, which in the future can not plant trees.
Vertical probe is placed in a specially drilled wells up to 100 m. To install the specified capacity, he will be much more expensive - about 10 thousand. Euro.However, this option is no alternative, if the plot is no place to accommodate manifold.
designing the outer contour of the heat pump system such as "ground-water", you must take into account the structure and composition of the soil, on which the specific heat removal (for a variety of surface soils its value is between 10 and 40 W / m2).In the case of a horizontal collector (in our case it is laid at a depth of 1,7 ± 0,2 m), the relevant data can be obtained at the stage of laying the foundation of a house or digging a hole a certain depth.
Specific heat removal vertical probe is also highly dependent on the density of the rock and the location of aquifers (range - from 30 to 100 W / m).For information on geological structures it is logical to turn to specialized companies engaged in drilling for water in the area where the facility is located (especially since the implementation of the project without the drillers can not do).At the stage of preliminary design can handle the average specific heat removal for rocks of different density and soil water content (values are given in textbooks manufacturers teplonososnyh installations).Current design decisions can be made the manufacturer only works directly on the spot, during well drilling.
The experience of Russian and foreign engineering companies working on arrangement of horizontal collector well must be carried out with the assistance of specialized construction companies possessing appropriate equipment (excavator) and human resources.
most often for the organization of the external loop heat pump system used plastic pipes DN 20 or 25. Operating temperature range allows the use of primary coolant pipe for cold water.The nominal working pressure of the pipe horizontal collector - 10, vertical probe - 16 bar.Spacing between collectors - 0.6 m.
Another way to obtain low-grade heat via heat pumps "ground-water" - laying a collector at the bottom of open water (where possible).
low-grade heat source for heat pumps "water-water" serve as ground water: water is taken from a shallow well, it passes through the heat pump and discharged into the second hole.This embodiment allows for more heat, but rarely applied in practice - because of problems with quality and quantity (heat pump capacity of 13 kW required flow of 2.8 m3 / h) of water for many years.
As a rule, the outer contour of the heat pump system such as "ground-water" includes several horizontal collector coils or loops of the vertical probe.They are united collectors who have recommended outside the home - in special pits or mines - so that they are available for inspection.At the customer's request or for the convenience of mounting manifolds can be placed inside the home.
Since the temperature of coolant in the supply and return lines of the external circuit is lower than inside the house, they must be insulated - to prevent condensation.
Connection and placement
As in countries with a milder climate in Russia, heat pumps of the "ground-water" able to fully meet the needs of an individual house warm.Operating mode heat pump system without additional heat source is called the monovalent.As a rule, the heat pump is equipped with a built-in household power backup electric heater.It can operate as a heat pump in place of or in parallel with it, for example, by covering the heat shortage in the coldest day of the year.As used in this case one and the same energy source, such a mode of operation called monoenergetic.
operated in mono and mono-energetic heat pump for the cottage require three-phase supply, the receipt of which is required to agree to a local power company.Note: the power consumed by the heat pump system is relatively small and considerably smaller than the electric boiler with the same capacity.If the limit of power assigned to the house, is not exceeded, no special permits for the use of the heat pump in our country is not required.
way abroad each installation of the heat pump requires no registration.To remove the peaks in electricity consumption in countries such as Germany, "elektrosnabzhentsy" have the right to three times a day to disable the installation of two hours, that makes enter the multiplying factor in the calculation of its power.
Placing the heat pump in the building is not as tightly regulated as in the case of gas boilers.The main factor - reducing the noise impact on the inhabitants of the cottage: do not place the unit near the bedrooms.The floor should be solid (desired concrete foundation), horizontal and level.Connection to the pump tubing and the outer contour of the heating system is recommended to be flexible pressure hoses.
set of measures to combat the noise depends on the grounds on which is installed a heat pump and heating system type (floor or radiator).In the basement, just install the device on a flat concrete floor.The very room where the heat pump is located must be warm (non-frozen).
in homes heated by heat pump, preference is given to low-temperature systems, mainly floor heating.When using the "warm floor" rate of conversion of heat (the ratio of transmitted power to the electrical consumption) is 4.5, and for radiator systems (also used) - 3. (That is, in the latter case, energy costs more.) Are used, andmixed ("warm floor" and radiators) solutions.Calculation
heating system should be made so as to ensure a minimum temperature in a straight line.This is achieved, for example, a decrease in pitch pipe laying underfloor heating.
Fig.It shows one of the typical schemes implemented in the cottage area of 230 m2 with floor heating.Power heat pump system (WPF 16) - 16.1 kW.Power consumption - 3.6 kW.CBT - 4.6.The area of soil collector - 500 m2.The length of the sewer pipe - 800 m (four loops 200 m), the inner tube diameter - 25 mm.
Typical heat pump system with a buffer storage cylinder and
WPF 16 - efficient heat pump "ground-water" to the maximum number of built-in elements: it is filled with pre-installed compressor loop control functions weather compensation,passive or active cooling, the heat circulating pump, the standby power of 8.8 kW electric with stepped switching, mixing valve DHW drive, all the temperature sensors.Includes security group heating circuit.The heat pump heats the heating medium to 60 ° C.
circuit includes buffer tank wall for heat pumps SBP 100. It is designed for matching the volume flow circuits and the heat pump heating systems (hydraulic function separation), and avoids too frequent switching of the heat pump (especially in systems with low inertia convectors) thatincreases the service life of the compressor.In addition, the buffer tank is partially ameliorate the effects of a power outage.It can be equipped with an additional flange heating element.Insulation ensures minimum heat loss.
also applicable outdoor 300-liter water heater for heat pumps - SBB 300 WP.Inside it is enamelled tubular heat exchanger.Package includes a PTC-sensor, a thermometer, a magnesium anode with a status indicator for optimal corrosion protection and flange plug on the place where you can set the heater or heat exchanger, for example, for connection to the solar thermal installation.Thermal insulation for low heat losses and is protected by high-quality plastic coating.
on automation.Standard heat pump controller provides weather-compensated regulation of the temperature in the house.The regulator has a very flexible system configuration.When connecting the room temperature sensor is possible to regulate the temperature of the air in the house: from the street as an independent sensor, and together with him.Automation supports two temperature heating circuits.Access to the remote controller is possible - by landline or cellular network.This feature, by the way, is already used by specialists OSKO: when there is a malfunction of the heat pump sends automatic SMS with the error code to the number of the service center.
Additionally, the program supplies provided to enable the heat pump in the summer to work as a piperine the recovery unit and (or) central air conditioning.Chance and heating water in the pool.
operation plants with a capacity of 10, 13 and 16 kW showed that electricity consumption for heating and hot water is from 11 to 17 thousand. Rub.per year, depending on the heat loss of the building and heating system type.The user did not apply additional measures to save energy (for example, temperature of 20 ° C is maintained around the clock in all areas of the house).That is, there is a real opportunity to reduce costs.
negative feedback about the heat pump installations have been reported.Not registered and malfunctions.Random change of settings that allow users to remotely eliminated - from the service center.Inspection of the heat pump is carried out according to the regulations, once in two years.
The experts work with customers engaged in "promoting" technology, guided by the rule: "It is better to see once than hear a hundred times."The main arguments in favor of the heat pump - economical operation, safety, no special requirements to be placed Thermo-generated and the need for harmonization, the reliability of the equipment.
Even with the possibility of connecting to the gas pipeline alignment now cost indicators can convince the customer to give preference to the heat pump.Thus, the cost of the liner pipeline distribution station, located 100 meters from the house under construction, comparable with the cost of the equipment set for the heat pump.
"Aqua-Therm" № 2 (36) 2007