Cloasa minima.

By Admin | Heating
26 May 2016
filter for wastewater treatment Building in 184 BC.e.number of similar cost structures of the Roman treasury of 24 million sesterces.About that, how much importance attached sewer inhabitants of "the eternal city", evidenced by the fact that in one of his incarnations of the goddess Venus was called Kloakina ("ochistitelnitsa") and served as the "supervision" of the urban waste.So the question of disposal of waste water excites mankind for thousands of years.He has not lost relevance today.Moreover, due to the active cottage construction and erection of a large number of separate buildings in the last few years, Russia has seen particularly keen interest in modern purification technologies.Thing of the past banal sinkhole.And what has come to replace it?


Of course, the most simple and effective solution to the problem of waste water for a country house, a roadside cafe or petrol station is to connect to a central sewer system.In water protection zones canals, reservoirs and rivers connecting to utility networks requir
ed.However, not all the settlements, not to mention the buildings are located in isolation, there is such an opportunity.And the size of the fee for connection to the collector can be several thousand dollars.

Therefore, in some cases the best, and often the only way out is the use of individual systems of treatment of domestic sewage.

All local sewage treatment plant can be divided into two main types: compact and biological treatment systems based on the natural properties of the soil filtration.

first scheme is today considered the best technical solution to dispose of household waste (especially if year-round in a country house).Cleaning takes place here using a mechanical settling of suspended particles and biological multi-step method, followed by disinfection of treated water.Biological treatment is carried out by microorganisms that are naturally present in the wastewater and multiply in sewage plant to create favorable conditions for their existence.

main advantage of systems soil clean - energy independence: they do not need to be connected to the mains.This makes them ideal homes are suitable for seasonal (usually years) of residence.Most of the systems of biological treatment can not be disconnected from the electricity.

Systems using the method of cleaning soil, are divided into two types, with subsequent absorption of wastewater and subsequent soil filtration.The absorption is carried out in a natural way by using the self-cleaning capacity of the soil, and filtering is done through an artificially created soil filter.The choice of treatment depends on soil composition and harakteristikgrunta land uchastka.V ​​sandy soils and superpeschanyh the most economical and effective device is a field absorption: waste water goes into the ground through a perforated pipe, laid in a layer of gravel about 40 cm in height.

When clay and loamsoils (they are waterproof and slabofiltruyuschie) and high groundwater level (depth - less than 2.5 m) specially arrange sand and macadam field filtering or filter several tranches.The trench several layers of gravel and sand, which are stacked in the perforated pipes.The recommended length of this construction - 20-25 meters, which increases the degree of purification to 95-98%.Grey water passing through the filter is collected in the drainage ditch and diverted from the territory.The filter layer must be changed periodically.But rarely - once 10-15 years.

How does settler

The first stage is the same for both schemes wastewater treatment.This mechanical filtration.Effluents are passed through different kinds of grating and sumps, whereby particulate matter contained in the wastewater settles to the bottom.In some systems, the same purification stage provided degreasing treatment.

settler work is illustrated by the appropriate level settings "LOS 5" produced by LLC "Impuls-Plast".Drain this treatment plant is a three-chamber container in which the waste water flows by gravity from the house of the incoming pipeline, and there is a smooth movement of fluid from one chamber to the other sedimentary.Thus the suspended particles settle to the bottom and form a precipitate - yl undergoing slow process of anaerobic (oxygen-free) fermentation, during which a portion of contaminants dissolved in the water, while the other - accumulates at the bottom of the settling tank to form insoluble mineral compounds.

anaerobic process takes place in two stages.First, due to the acid fermentation proteins, fats and carbohydrates are broken down into lower fatty acids (acetic, formic, butyric), carbon dioxide, ammonia, hydrogen sulfide, alcohols and other compounds.In the second stage, the methane fermentation: fatty acids, alcohols and other compounds formed previously decomposed to methane, carbon dioxide and hydrogen.This process is carried out by bacteria, naturally produced in domestic wastewater, as well as microbial agents introduced artificially.Resulting gases discharged into the atmosphere through the vent and exhaust sewage system.Requirements for the cubic capacity of the settler (triple the amount of daily water consumption) dictated by the fact that the efficiency of anaerobic process requires a certain time - not less than three days.

Sediment from other manufacturers can be constructed and the amount of other than the above, but the principle of operation of all units of this type is approximately the same.In some installations ("Leader", "Biofluid", "Tver") septic tanks are integrated into a common housing, in others - is a separate module (Green Rock, Uponor, "Biomaster", "Alta").


consider the further fate of wastewater into the compact biological treatment plants as an example, "Los 5".From the sump they arrive in the aeration tank where the saturated oxygen in the air (aerated).Simultaneously, there is intense mixing of aerated water.Clearance mechanisms used in the aeration tank, based nabiologicheskom process of removing contaminants using activated sludge, i.e.bacterial communities living colonies as flakes suspended in water.In the presence of oxygen, these microorganisms absorb and oxidize organic substances such as dissolved (e.g., sugar) and colloid (such as flour solution in water).The more pollution kill bacteria activated sludge, the more intense they multiply.For efficient and rapid growth of bacteria in the microbial preparations are used, which consist of living cells and enzymes.

degree of metabolic activity reaches a limit when bacteria are numerous and begin to accumulate in the macrocolonies, including also integrally and fine particles in suspension in the water.Thus formed flakes of from 1 to 10 mm, which, being denser than water, rush to the bottom and form a sludge.As a result, most of the pollutants destroyed organic compounds and for the purification reaction stimulated nitric fraction.

Nitrogen is removed in two stages, the first of which is defined as the nitrification and performed due to the presence of oxygen.When this ammonia and dissolved ammonium compound decomposition products of proteins are oxidized and transformed into nitrite first, and then - in the nitrates which are in the next stage - denitrification converted to nitrogen gas, which is not a pollutant.

surplus activated sludge containing the organic fraction, hereinafter subject biodegradable and inorganic.In the absence of flow of sewage in the aeration tank biomass contained in the sludge itself nourishes much cutting.Irreducible residue of organic and inorganic fractions add up to a few kilograms per year, should be removed periodically.

Before clearing drains on the relief chlorination designed to disinfect water at the outlet.The unit 'LOS 5 "purified water comes into contact with the tablet slow release of chlorine placed in a special chamber of chlorination.Finally, after decontamination ochischennyestoki sbornoraspredelitelny enter the well, where drainage is pumped to the relief.

Similar schemes are used in cleaning systems "aspen", "Ecoline", "Favorit Plus" and some others.

Wastewater treatment plants in the "Tapas", "YUBAS", "Biotal", "Cyclone" and their analogues is due to the so-called SBR-reactors.If the classic continuous aeration tank occurs only oxidation of organic contaminants in the SBR-reactors, the number of operations expanded to anoxic processes that occur at the termination of aeration, but a living aerobic weight.Reactions in the SBR-reactors are very intense due to the high concentration of aerobic bacteria groups.Moreover, the conditions in these facilities are optimal for the development of single-celled organisms that eat less active bacteria, thus rejuvenating the activated sludge.Facilities with SBR-reactors can be regarded as ecologically closed systems: the degree of wastewater treatment (98-99%) allows the use of treated water for irrigation, and the resulting activated sludge like a river, and is a valuable fertilizer.

filtration and absorption

In systems using the method of cleaning soil, considerable importance is the correct device absorption and filtration systems.Here are some scheme, for example, recommends the use of the company Uponor.Clarified water from the clarifier comes through the pipes into the distribution well equipped with water flow control and the gate.The regulator serves to maintain a constant level of water supplied to the distribution tubes and gate - to uniformly divide the flow proceeds during power drains.From the distribution of the well water enters the special perforated tubes (so-called dispensers) laid in a layer of gravel on an incline of 5-10 mm / m.At the ends of nozzles provided facing the surface of the insulation displacement ventilation.The spray pipe can be laid in ditches individual and common field absorption or filtering.

When absorption system drains water passing through the gravel, leaves on the ground, which is subjected to post-treatment.Otherwise arranged filtration system: it drains leaked through a layer of gravel thickness of 30-40 cm layer of sand fall into the 1-1.2 m thick, the bottom of which laid sewer pipes.According to him filtered water enters the collector well, of which the drainage pipe is given a suitable place to discharge water to the relief.

field filtering can be located above the sump installation.In this case the clarified water is fed upward by means of the pumping system.

What's the price?

As you know, demand creates supply.Today the Russian market treatment facilities provides a very wide selection of domestic and foreign manufacturers.As a rule, the choice of the purchaser of a system is influenced by parameters such as price, performance, and material of construction of the structure.Equally important are the requirements for the installation and removal of sediment, as well as the degree of wastewater output.Some treatment plants require regular (at least once a year) pumping accumulated mineralized sediment through sewage truck, for others - just once every three years to manually change the filter.Hydrological, climatic and relief conditions in which to work setting, also set certain limitations on the choice of the treatment plant.Finally, the last value for the consumer has a lifetime warranty provided by the manufacturer.Treatment facilities

series "Topas" manufactured (brand owner - OOO PO "Topol-Eco"), are made of polypropylene and have an integrated capacity from 1 to 30 m3 / day, ie,the number of users of these systems can be up to 150 people.After clearing these plants waste water can be discharged into water bodies.Removal of sludge produced regular pump without calling sewage truck.The cost of systems "Tapas" with the installation "turnkey" - from $ 3,500.

Series treatment facilities "VOC" Company "Impuls-Plast" is designed for smaller volumes of waste (number of living - no more than 10 people).Integrated wastewater treated them with mechanical settling (under anaerobic conditions) and multistage biological method (aeration) followed by chlorination of the purified water.They are made of polyethylene.Wastewater can be discharged to the relief.Removal of sediment - twice a year without the use of specialized equipment.The cost of systems "VOC" with the installation - from 3500 USD.

Ltd. "FTS-Service" produces sewage treatment plant "Favourite Plus", which represent concrete monoblock combining digester two-piece (ie the capacity to remove contaminants using anaerobicBacteria carrying out the methane fermentation of organic matter) and the filter chamber.It is reliable and efficient facilities, easily resisting shifting of ground, but every 3-5 years requiring removal of sludge using sewage truck.Cost with installation - from 3500 USD.

System series "Cottage-Bio", produced by LLC "Liga-B" - a collection of units of full operational readiness performed in-situ reinforced concrete or metal with a special two-layer double-sided protective coating.Cleaning efficiency - up to 99%.To remove the sludge once a year requires special equipment call.The cost of installing a "turnkey" - from $ 3,500.

Among the proposed JSC "Trading House" Engineering equipment "line of water treatment facilities" Tver "have installation manufactured from both the steel and polypropylene.The performance of these systems have a wide range - from those calculated for a small family to intended for a cottage settlement.Settings made in a single, multiple sealed enclosure containing a settler, a bioreactor, aeration, disinfection chamber.Systems "Tver" used mainly when clay soils and high groundwater level.Reset - sewers or terrain.Frequency and method for removing sludge depend on modification.Cost with installation - $ 2,700.

Ltd. "The new plant wells and pipes" supplies the market with water treatment plants "Zolotar" operating on the principle of the digester and consisting of three chambers in which the fecal water separated from the organic impurities, are clarified and biologically treated atfilter and sorbent materials.The cameras are waterproof concrete wells equipped with different filters.The installation does not require electromechanical equipment.Permitted discharge of treated wastewater into the pond.Removal of sludge produced every 5-10 years using sewage truck.Purchase and installation of the system "Zolotar" will cost from 2030 to 5080 dollars.

Many biological treatment of wastewater Russian production made on the basis of plastic tanks, septic tanks for such manufacturers of plastics, as "anion", "ELGAD polymer""Rotoplast" and "Impuls-Plast".

Among foreign manufacturers of water treatment facilities one of the leading positions are occupied by Finnish company Green Rock.A typical installation of this brand is a tank made of polyethylene, which is produced by using biofiltration plates or cartridges of stone wool.Water is removed from the apparatus or to the filtration well or in a trench.This model is easy to use, requires no electrical connections, but once in three years is necessary to replace the filter.The cost of the installation - from 3700 USD.

French company Calona-Purflo supplies Russian autonomous systems biological treatment of polyethylene.These structures are designed for year-round and for seasonal use, their performance varies from 200 to 30,000 liters / day.Removal of sediment must be made no less frequently than every five years.The relatively low cost - from $ 1500. Including assembly and installation, - due to the fact that the equipment is supplied complete sets, ready for installation.