Usually these problems arise in the cottage and holiday villages deprived of the main gas pipeline.Laying a new branch pipeline to connect its cost is quite expensive and usually take a long time.
Faced with a lack of gas pipeline, should consider the possibility of the heating system in the liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) - a byproduct of oil and natural gas, the main components of which - heavy hydrocarbons: propane and butane.In accordance with GOST 20448-90 "hydrocarbon liquefied gases fuel for domestic consumption.Specifications ", the concentration of propane in the mixture - about 75%.
proposed version retains all the energy heating the main advantages of the trunk gas.In this operating costs by 30-40% lower than in the case of use of electricity or for heating diesel fuel (tab.).The initial cost of equipping the cottage with the necessary equipment (tanks, valves, boiler, etc.), Its installation, object registration in the bodies of technical supervision of the estimated amount of about 300 tho
Choice companies supplying liquefied gas, allows the user to control the costs of heating and to be protected from a sharp increase in the cost of traditional energy monopolized.
Most models of modern gas heating equipment requires the ability to work with LPG.The structure of the heating system further includes LPG tanks (gas tanks), gas pressure regulators, safety shut-off and slam-relief valves, control and measuring instruments for pressure and level of LPG in the tank, valves, and piping the liquid and vapor phases.If the project involves the presence of the evaporator units, require a number of tools for their work.
liquefied gas storage tanks use up to 50 m3.The amount and type of vessel for a particular facility shall be based on the heated area (the value of gas consumption).Thus, the storage capacity of 5 and 9 m3 suitable for cottages, equipped with boilers with capacity of 50 and 80 kW respectively.
There are two options for placement of gas tanks - ground and underground.The choice between them made on the basis of specific conditions.
in Western European countries where autonomous gas supply individual houses spread widely enough, the responsibility for safe operation of laying directly to the consumer;certification ensures stable operation of the reservoir for 20 years, after which it is replaced, depending on the state of a new one.Experience of heating LPG, high level of technology and culture Spaces allow Europeans not to impose severe restrictions on the placement of storage tanks of liquefied gas, placing them in the immediate vicinity of the house, for example, even in the garage.
Although we proposed (imported or produced in Russia by Western technology) equipment complies with European quality standards, in our country there are severe restrictions on the location of gas tanks with respect to homes, roads, power lines and other structures and communications.
For terrestrial reservoirs of 5 m3 should be located no closer than 20 meters from residential buildings, 5 m - from the ground structures and communications, 10 m - from roads.However, when installing the underground tank of the same volume, the permissible distances are reduced: heating to the object and the road - twice (10 and 5 m, respectively).
Regulations require burial underground reservoir below freezing.However, the valves, which is equipped with a gas tank must be accessible and located on the surface.Therefore, all underground tanks supplying an elongated neck.
on the tank underground placement, made of steel, epoxy systems and provide tanks electrochemical anode cathodic protection against corrosion.The protection consists of magnesia anode member, the measuring unit and the capacitance of the cable.
Ground reservoir installation must be ventilated enclosure of non-combustible materials with a minimum height of 1.6 m. The distance from the tank to the fence should be at least 1 m, and from the fence to the outer edge of the embankment, or the closed partition wall of non-flammable materials - at least 07 m.
In accordance with SNIP 42-01-2002 "Gas distribution systems", the number of tanks in the installation must be at least two, but for use in the private sector, taking into account the specifics of gas consumption modes (allowed time off) allowedinstallation of one gas tank.
for a joint group of tanks should be connected to each other by pipelines vapor phase, in which the device must be switched off (the gas pipeline vapor unites underground tanks require the installation of isolation devices between the groups of tanks at a height of not less than 0.5 m from the ground).
Code of Practice for the design and construction of the joint venture 42-101-2003 "General provisions for the design and construction of the gas distribution systems of metallic and polyethylene pipe" allows you to calculate the performance of the LPG tank of special nomograms based on the volume of reservoirs, their number and fill and hourgas consumption for residential buildings.
tanks can be vertical and horizontal.Ceteris paribus second preferred arrangement - such gas tanks capable of providing a greater flow of gas, since the evaporation surface of the gas in this case is higher than in the vertical tanks of the same volume.Fills be no more than 85% of the geometrical volume of the tank.
With a small gas consumption (for example, in the case of heating a country house gas convector) can be stored in gas cylinders, restrictions on the placement of which are not so significant.
Individual (consisting of 1-2 cylinders) balloon installation are permitted to place both outside and inside buildings.
Group ballooning storage of LPG can be installed at the building walls is not lower than the III degree of fire resistance with a maximum total capacity of 600 liters.
Do not allow installation of LPG cylinders in the living rooms and hallways, basements and basements, attics, in rooms without natural light, from the main facade.
Near the residential building is allowed to place a maximum of three balloons of at least 15 m apart.
As part of a group of balloon setup should include shut-off valve, gas pressure regulator, safety-relief valve, pressure gauge and pipes showing the high and low pressure.The number of cylinders in a group setting should be determined by calculation.
tanks of different types have different ability to produce vapor of gas by natural evaporation.The greater the evaporation surface, the higher this capacity.Natural evaporation of LPG should create the necessary pressure of the vapor phase before the burner.If you want to increase the capacity of the heating system, it is necessary to increase the volume of the tank or install the evaporator.
evaporators convert the liquid phase LPG high pressure (1-16 bar) in the vapor phase low pressure (30-70 mbar) ready for submission to the burner to provide a reliable and continuous supply pas rovoy phase product to the burner in substantiallyany composition of the gas and any temperature.
evaporator unit divided into flow and capacity.The first provides a vapor of constant composition in special heat exchangers.In the latter case, evaporation is carried out directly in the feed tank by means of special immersion heaters (regazifikatorov).
easiest and most convenient in a way to organize independent heating evaporation - Start the evaporator additional hot water circuit.
Flow and capacity evaporation plant is recommended to provide with underground tanks.You can use evaporative plants with aboveground tanks, provided the appropriate application of heat insulation on their outer surface.Upon evaporation of the LPG directly into underground reservoirs via regazifikatorov must be a system for automatic protection against lowering of the liquid phase in the tank below the minimum, as well as increasing the temperature of the liquid phase in the tank compared to the temperature of the surrounding soil over the permissible value.
When using elements of the evaporator unit, including pressure regulator, valves and pressure relief valve and piping, provide for measures to prevent the formation of condensation and crystalline.When used in the evaporators as a coolant, hot water or steam from the heating networks should include activities, eliminates the possibility of getting LPG heating network.
evaporators use in electric heating equipment must be explosion-proof.It is necessary to ensure the dim electric heaters after a temporary power outages.The electrical flow evaporators with an intermediate coolant (antifreeze) requires a system of protection from temperature increase above allowable antifreeze, to prevent it boiling and burnout of electric heaters.
evaporators are placed in a steel cabinet with controls and monitors the devices.Liquid evaporators are equipped with a thermostat to control the temperature of gas sensor control fluid solenoids inlet of the liquid phase, safety valves in the gas phase, the pressure control apparatus, ball valves.The kit includes an evaporator with electric ball and check valves, strainers, pressure regulators.
often autonomous gas supply is used as a starter or a backup.The pressure in the remote pipes in the heating season may be reduced, threatening stop boilers.The solution - the use of mixers and combined systems, allowing for uninterrupted operation gas consuming equipment in case of pressure drop in pipelines and the transition to alternative supply - LNG without any alteration of gas-burning devices.
In Russia the use of autonomous gas supply systems is just beginning to gain momentum, and economic production.Therefore, the equipment market is represented mainly by products of such European companies as FAS (Germany), Walter Tosto Serbatoi (Italy), DeltaGaz (Czech Republic).In Russia, there are companies that are official representatives of foreign organizations involved in the design, assembly, installation, emergency maintenance and registration of objects in the supervisory bodies.
autonomous gas supply systems for LPG widespread abroad due to their high cost.A significant part of the town houses in Europe and America is fired in this way.Half of the total volume of LPG used in Europe is used for heating (as fuel for vehicles used only 10%).
"Aqua-Therm" July-August number 4 (38) 2007