primarily determined by the place.Wetlands and areas flooded by flood waters, for this purpose are not suitable.Be careful, if there is career development, galleries, abandoned wells - at ground motions can be bent trunk well.It is inadmissible to place a well near the highways, places of storage of pesticides.For it is removed the highest and the purest place in the area - as far as possible from the toilet, shower, compost pits.
Once our ancestors determined the occurrence of water marks: sizing, which lies on a warm evening mist, where mosquitoes and gnats hovering, notice it places the onset of the spring thaw.But we must recognize that these symptoms indicate with absolute certainty only that it perched.
Many teams and companies are taken to dig wells in any season.Time snowmelt still be excluded.Best period - autumn and winter (to March), when the groundwater level is the lowest.But there are some tricks.For example, in the construction of shallow wells on sa
Drill or dig?
If water lies deep, at 15-20 m below the surface, it is necessary to arrange tubewell.For this drilled hole and lowered into it the steel pipes of different diameters.But if a lot of soil layers of boulders, stones, the excavation will be fraught with great difficulties.
most common shaft wells.They are made of stone, wood, reinforced concrete.Who is the most commonly used concrete rings.It is simpler and cheaper, and takes a lot of time (3-4 days is usually sufficient).The undoubted advantages of such wells - durability, reliability and hygiene.Their depth is not determined by the wishes of the customer, depending on the depth from the first surface of the aquifer, and usually does not exceed 10 m. The greater depth and to dig hard and expensive.The second factor - the value of water inflow.If the water flows slowly sinker can catch set in the aquifer 2-3 rings, if the water comes so quickly that the pump does not have time to pump it, limited to one ring.The device dug wells uncomplicated: the upper part, called headroom, trunk and part of the rainwater.
How is it done
usually dig wells by hand, digging for centuries.A team of two or three people equipped with only a shovel, a crowbar so sledgehammer to break stones.Installing a winch, working, being replaced, fill the bucket with soil and raise it to the surface.Rocks split or dug entirely.Please choose the land under the first ring, set it over him following place.Below are mine, put on top of the ring.They fall down under its own weight, sliding on the walls of the cylindrical shaft.Thus the well until the water is passed.Before entering the aquifer seam between the lower two rings inside buried sand-cement mortar.Later, it is no longer possible to do.Once the solution grabs, you can continue working.
When there are keys, the water begins to arrive at such a rate that deal with it is no longer possible, stop digging and setting rings.In Quicksand * water column is usually 60-80 cm, but that is enough (because of the high rate filtration).The construction of the trunk, the seams between the rings inside sealed with cement mortar.Previously, it can not be done, because in the process of sinking several rings are displaced relative to each other.
To filter on the bottom poured a layer of well-washed granite gravel or gravel thickness of 20-30 cm. In quicksand at the bottom put a wooden bottom of aspen logs split in half, sprinkled on top of the gravel.If the water is filtered naturally, and the well can be filled through the bottom and through the side holes, slots.But in clay soils need to ensure that it comes only from the bottom.
When well prepared, its trunk is washed - washed mud - and spend the so-called build-up: water pump completely evacuated.
1. Gate 2. headroom blind area 3. 4. 5. Crushed Clay trunk lock 6. 7. 8. The water level of the water inlet Gravel 9. 10. The underlying water-resistant breed
The upper part of the well output above the ground 0.7-1 meters, setting a single ring.The junction between the underground and the upper part of the ring carefully sealed with cement.Unfortunately, the freezing of the soil, these joints are often open, which leads to loss of containment.
land around the well for some time gives a precipitate, and it is necessary to pour the ground, and then gravel, sand.From rain and spring floods will protect the well impermeable compacted clay castle.When the earth is completely settled, constructing blind area with a slope from the well, install house-visor.Only the most die-hard conservatives continue to rattle the chain with a bucket, getting water, most of the wells are trying to equip pumps and pipes that deliver water and beds, and the house.
Should we dig ourselves?
licenses for the construction of wells there, sometimes work is carried out without contracts and warranties.But this does not mean that anyone is able to independently dig a well.It is hard physical labor, dangerous work with a high degree of risk, which can only be carried out in compliance with technology and safety.For example, at a depth of 3 m, the temperature reaches only 10 ° C may gassing.If you encounter quicksand, the ring can "go" to the side and mutilate digger.
most common complaint - shallow well.This happens if it has been dug at the wrong time.
Sometimes regularly serves well for several years, and then dry - blame perennial fluctuations in groundwater levels, which can reach one and a half meters.In sandy soils well deepen 1-2 m rings of a similar diameter.In clay, where the barrel of the well gradually tightly crimped, it is necessary to use a ring of smaller diameter.
If a select few from the well water, it stagnates, it increases the mineral content that degrades its quality.
Well dirty?Then I burst a seam between the rings.This happens if the marriage was allowed.Seams can also blur during snowmelt.Eliminate the disorder can be re-Lead seams.