Pottery ... malleable clay, learn the experienced hands of the master, passed through fire and water, and became a pitcher for oil, coffee cup, bright tiles, fabulous and fun toy whistles.Secrets of the manufacture of pottery were known to our ancestors who lived thousands of years ago.In China, 2,000 years before our era it does not only pottery - in the course has been porcelain.And the first mention of the potters and their products can be found in the Old Testament.In an age of space technology and electronic gadgets, we continue to enjoy the fruits of the ancient craft - Pouring the morning coffee in a porcelain dish, going to the hot oven in a clay pot and graceful statues decorating the house - a reminder of the wonderful travel and people.
Twenty years master Vitaly Gychev
from Barnaul engaged in pottery.His first lap, while still a boy, he built from the player: dug out of clay on the creek, included plate and began turning it brown lump.Magic pitcher then failed to do
so.But today, in the hands of masters born wonders - ancient Russian kvass and Krynki, stately amphorae and vases.
Vitaly Gychev , potter:
- To work for virtually any clay.However, if the clay is thin, with a high content of sand in our area, it is less plastic, small items of a material to mold difficult.So first cleaned of impurities clay: drying, easier to disperse in water, and then a day or two is soaked in a vat - heavy sand particles are deposited, and the clay is suspended.
slurry passed through a screen - purified from the roots of plants and stones, and then for a long time kneaded like dough.It is necessary to expel the air from the clay, otherwise it will go on drying cracks.Before you get on the potter's wheel, it dries up again - the consistency of clay depends on the type of material and what kind of product is planned to create a potter.According to Vitaly together with pilaf, the path from sketch to its full realization sometimes takes months.
With to be friends with a potter's wheel and mold a simple pot or cup on the first try does not work almost none of the newcomers.Therefore, if you decide to try yourself in the role of a potter, do not worry, if the clay will not give in at once - patience and training, and now the product after drying can be sent to the furnace.
temperature at which the soft clay becomes malleable stone strength of 900-1000 degrees Celsius.
Vitaly Gychev :
- When firing has critical points - 300, 600 degrees, which is necessary to pass very smoothly.The clay can burst: on drying was somewhere skvoznyachok, clay dried out unevenly, and heating it begins to tear.Therefore, up to 30% of marriage - is common among potters.
Each master pottery has its secrets work.
Vitaly Gychev :
- Omsk My friend - a potter with a lot of experience - as it came to my studio and asked, "Why are you not to turn the pots when sushish?They have in fact bottoms bulge. "And I, so as not to stick out when the pot is doing inside mound in the bottom of leave - he pulls into the clay, and not out.
Milk, lead, icing
black-polished, krasnoloschenaya, obvarnaya, majolica ... There are all kinds of ways, and finishing ceramics for thousands of years have not invented potters!After firing the raw clay has a porous structure and water tight, and therefore such dishes can not be used in the kitchen.To make the material waterproof, craftsmen use ancient techniques of processing.According to Sergei Zatsarenskogo , a potter from Rostov-on-Don, the most popular - molochenie, scalded and ganozis.
Sergei Zatsarensky :
- Molochenie so called because the product is dipped in the scorched fat milk, and then calcined at a temperature of 300 degrees.Casein glues pores, clay becomes watertight, and the product acquires a beautiful color - from brown to black, and shiny.But to get a divorce from the chaotic black spots, making scald: red-hot product is dipped in flour mash with yeast, bran and milk waste.Also, the clay is water, its waxing - this technology is called ganozis.The wax is heated lightly with oil impregnated them heated the product, and then polish with a cloth made of cloth or felt.
emerging and new technologies - so to waterproof the facade ceramics is now fashionable to impregnate AQUASTOP.
give color ceramics can not only using milk, wax and flour mash.A rich palette of colors give a mixture of different minerals, salts, ash and slag.Glazes copper and malachite stained blue, dark blue shades, lead - in green, and so on.
Sergei Zatsarensky :
- In the old days to get the color on the potters burn through the cast-iron skillet lead in the flour, sifted through a sieve.For green copper sulphate was added to the red - iron, for yellow - white lead and antimony for brown - manganese oxide.The product itself daubed with grease and kerosene, sprinkle cooked flour and put on roasting - adhering litharge formed a bright shiny glaze.
Krynki brilliant deep black color - a black-polished pottery.This was made in the third millennium BC.The black-polished ware long kisnet milk and cream, not candy honey, she steadfastly maintains the temperature drops.The recipe for the black pots for centuries remained the same: first, the product is formed on a potter's wheel, dried and fired in a furnace, and then placed in a vat of sawdust, close lid and smoked.Then rub to a shine.
Vitaly Gychev potter :
- Pottery art today has ceased to be utilitarian, and is decorative.Krynki and kvass now rarely used for its intended purpose, and often get to decorate the interior.Personally, I'm at home I like to cook and store food in pottery - is not only beautiful, but also very convenient.
guest with Mallorca
top of clay transformation - a bright majolica - a kind of pottery is made of baked clay with painted glaze.The technique is performed majolica tiles, dishes, figurines, decorative panels.The secret of this technology is still owned by the master of ancient Egypt.But really popular painted pottery began in the Renaissance, once in Italy through the Spanish island of Majorca - by geographic name and took the term "majolica".
One of the major centers of majolica in Russia in the XVII century became Yaroslavl, where produced tiles for the decoration of churches and houses.Today Yaroslavl is famous for its ceramics - such sets and sculptures do not make anywhere else in the world.
Create colorful statues begins with modeling clay miniatures.At this stage, the future majolica soft and supple, and the sculptor can work even small details.Then the master poured miniature plaster solution, which solidify, takes the form of sculptures.Then, the plaster mold is filled shnikerom - a liquid solution of clay.After a few minutes of free shnikera shape and left to dry.After the plaster shackles removed, leaving a thin potsherd - after a few days it is sent into the furnace.
The roasted ceramic figure dipped in white enamel and painted matte glazed paints that dry up instantly.It's incredibly tedious process, because the artist is no room for error - if the hand tremble, excess stain has nothing to paint over.After firing the matte faded figure acquires brightness and gloss.It turns out this beauty here:
If you want to decorate your house with tiles, read the advice of our members of the forum in this thread.It is also suggested to watch our video, which gives details on the production of tiled tiles.Guidelines for selecting the proper utensils for cooking in the oven, you will find here.