unpreparedness and haste in the construction of homes often lead to the emergence of numerous construction errors.How to avoid it, and most importantly, is it possible to refute the claim that the first house built for the enemy?The answer is simple - you need to listen to the advice of our experts and users forumhouse.ru!
from our material you will learn the answers to the following questions:
- Why should begin right building?
- Why is it important to do a project at home?
- How to avoid protracted?
- Why is it necessary to investigate the soil on the site?
- What mistakes do occur during the construction of the foundation, and what it may lead?What mistake
- allow developers at warming the house more often?
- How to avoid mistakes in the choice of material for roofing?
error 1. Construction of the project without
Many novice developers believe that building a house begins with the selection of the first liked the model project.Practice shows that this is a profound mistake - an individual projec
professional builders Denis Reznichenko:
- Based on my experience, I can say that most developers are trying to choose a project in appearance - beautiful facade or just a picture.It is fundamentally wrong!
His house must first invent, and based on the desire to draw a plan.
then - imagine all the rooms and facilities, up to furniture placement, and mentally walk through it.
So you can cut off most of the errors associated with a functional home.
individual project at home saves money, time, and gives a guaranteed result as close as possible to your needs.
Construction Consultant Roman Nikonov :
- There are four basic errors that occur at the initial stage:
1. Error image.It is connected with the fact that has not made a final decision, which wants to build a house builder.For example, first we decided to build a house made of lumber on a light foundation, and in the process of construction has come to understand that it would be desirable to build a stone house.And for that you need a different - a more powerful foundation.The result - wasted money.
2. Error compromise - occurs when a family fails to agree, everyone needs a home.For example: the husband wants a big house, and his wife - a cozy family nest.The result - if you take the path of least resistance and "whittle down" the wishes of all family members, the house will not suit everyone.
3. Error organization.House - is a complex engineering structures, which are necessary for the construction of professional knowledge.Any mistake made at the design stage, resulting in costly alterations.Conclusion: if you do not have enough personal knowledge necessary to address to experts.
4. Financial mistakes.Errors at this stage (no attempt to build the project and therefore no estimate) lead to long-term construction, abandoned, or "frozen" for an indefinite period of construction projects.
- In my opinion, the construction of his house - it's not worth doing "a last effort."It is necessary to carefully plan its costs ... Bringing professional architects makes sense for the cost of the house, from 2 million. Rubles.Designers - when the house appeared bearing concrete structures, bridges, or when the house is "out" for the amount of 3.4 mln. Rubles excluding trim.
house building, from idea to completion, rarely takes less than one year, and more often - 2-3 years.The cost of "the box" on average about 50% of the cost of the house "turnkey".The cost of engineering systems, internal and external clean finish can easily exceed the cost of the box.
is also necessary to advance calculate the cost of running the house and lay the additional funds for the systems that provide comfortable living.
- heating costs;
- connection costs of electricity and gas;
- costs of drilling or digging a well;
- cost of installing a septic tank;
- costs landscaping.
Roman Nikonov :
- a consequence of unrecorded expenses are unfinished houses, which due to lack of funds for continued construction sell or rebuild, trying to get closer to his dream.
avoid these errors can only be carefully weighed in advance all the "pros" and "cons".You must ensure that the construction of his house - it's not a fad, but a careful and conscious choice, based on a sober calculation.
error 2. Wrong choice area of the house
After a preliminary draft approved by the next question is: what should be the area of the house?It would be easy - take the size of the apartment and the usual increase it, adding the area.That's just how much to increase?It is here that there is one of the most common mistakes.
result - a huge construction of two-, three-storey house, part of the area which is not used or an attempt to shrink all that is possible in a small space.Then it turns out that for a comfortable stay is missing what some 10-15 sq.m.What to do?
estimating the size of the premises, should adhere to the following values:
- living room - 20-25 square meters.m;
- kitchen - 15-20 square meters.m;
if the planned construction of a kitchen-dining area, the area can be increased up to 20-25 square meters.m.
- bedroom - 15-20 sq.m.
important to remember that the house - it's not flat, and for a comfortable stay must immediately schedule a technical and auxiliary facilities, namely:
area of these facilities will largely determine the project at home, and even the presence of communications.For example, the minimum amount of gas boiler on the existing standards should be - 15 m3, or 6 sq.m.
On lobbies, hallways and bathrooms to add another 25-35 square meter.Number of outbuildings should ideally be equal to the number of living rooms.In practice, this ratio often is 5/3 in favor of the living rooms.The result is that for a family of 4 persons, a necessary area of the house is approximately 125-150 square meters.m.
This figure is not a dogma, and it is only necessary to be guided.
heed the advice of members of the forum.
- When planning the home immediately recommend to lay an extra bathroom, bathroom to the bedroom.The two-storey house should be at least two toilets.
- In our house has three floors and three showers.The project laid the house shower size 2.15 x 2.25 m. Initially, we thought that this size is enough.
Now, after completion, it became clear that in such a small room not really place the toilet, sink, do not install the washing machine.
Even before the construction of the house, think about what you will be in different rooms.
WC and bathroom are best designed as two separate rooms.It is also necessary to avoid lots of small rooms, connected by a long corridor.
- When we built two stories, we realized that the corridor could have been done already, but now it does not alter.Therefore it is necessary to think ten times over the plan!
error 3. Wrong location of the house on a plot
believed that the ideal ratio of the area of the house to the size of the plot - 1/10.Therefore, it is not necessary to build a house of 200 sq.m.on a plot of 8.6 acres.
also necessary to imagine the house "tied" to the site.After all the mistakes made at this stage, it is practically impossible to fix.
example, SNIP is allowed to put the house is not closer than 3 meters to the boundary of the site and no closer than 5 meters to the edge of the street, so-called red line.
minimum distance that must separate the wooden houses, depending on the number of storeys, from 8 to 15 meters, between the stone - 6 meters.
Before the construction is necessary to think over in advance, which will be located on a plot of farm buildings, pavilions, cabins, garage.How will the entry to the area of freight transport.Will there be enough room for him to turn and where storage of building materials will be produced.
should also be pre-orient the house to the cardinal and to estimate the degree of insolation premises.For example: if the bedroom window facing north, there appears the sun.If the windows are looking to the west, the sun in the bedroom will appear only in the evening.
Also important to define with the introduction of communications.
- If you burite well before the construction of the house, then think over, which will be entering the water in the house.In this room, I recommend to equip the boiler room.So it is with sewage - first decide which will be the toilets, and whether you have the ability to place next to the house a septic tank.
error 4. Failure to study the soil at the site
What is your primer on the site?Many developers find it difficult to answer this question.Although the type of soil on the site largely depends on selection of the project at home.
Roman Nikonov :
- Often, the results of geology, the decision on choosing the type of foundation, the cap device or basement and sometimes the type of above-ground parts of the house.Thus, in the peaty soil is expedient to put a light house, than to try to make the foundation for the heavy building.
Geology is required for:
- precise definition of the foot width of the tape base;
- accurate determination of the depth of the foundation;
- determine the number and length of the piles in the pile foundation;
- clarify the reinforcement of the foundation slab.
Geology saves 10 to 50% of the underground part of the building.And usually done by drilling three - four wells to a depth of 4-10 meters.Thus the so-called overlapzone of influence of the foundation.
Roman Nikonov :
- Simple calculation shows that it is advisable to carry out geological surveys with the cost of the foundation (including the draft) 400 000 or any doubts about the composition and properties of soil.Otherwise - may be the most unpleasant consequences: foundation settlement, cracks in load-bearing walls, etc.
error 5. Foundations, like all
One of the most common mistakes developers becoming the choice for the foundation "as a neighbor."Usually motivated by the fact that everybody does.Thoughtless approach leads to unpredictable results.
foundation must be designed specifically for your home and the soil in your yard.
In addition, the quality of the performance and reliability of the foundation depends on the durability of the house.The most common mistake at this stage of construction includes:
- poured concrete is not completely covers the reinforcing cage, and fittings in contact with the ground.This leads to its corrosion, reduce the bearing capacity of the foundation and its rapid degradation.
- Insufficient depth of the foundation.
- Fill piles malozaglublёnnomu to strip foundations.This can lead to a separation of the pile tape when frost heaving of the soil.
- Insufficient belt width and reducing its bearing capacity.
- Excessively strong foundation heavily exposed to the same heave.
- Filling sinuses local soil.The clay soil is capable of swelling in the effort to create up to 40 tons per square meter, for example, push the wall of the basement.
- Incorrect MZLF reinforcement.
- Excessive reinforcement.For example, operating valves in the center section of the tape is useless.
- absence of horizontal waterproofing, as a consequence - soggy and the appearance of mold on the walls in the house.
- foundation is insulated properly, which leads to the freezing of the soil and the emergence of forces of frost heaving.
- not made drainage of foundation and drainage of surface water from it.
Keep in mind that an extension to the house - the veranda, porch, etc.It is best done in a single building with a basement.
- Before you build the foundation, consider how you will look like the entrance to the house.We have laid the foundation of the porch without, and when the house was built, realized that the porch is a must.The house is beautiful with it, and there is where pereobut dirty shoes.
If you plan to build the foundation for a separate outhouse, it is also important to consider a number of features.
- My opinion: any annexe - a separate building, which requires its own foundation.
Roman Nikonov :
- Much depends on the design.Foundations, built at different times, will always give different shrinkage.
basic foundation and foundation outhouse can not be rigidly connected to each other.Provision should be made between the expansion joint.
error 6. Wrong combination of materials
You can often hear the opinion that this or that material - a bad one.It is important to understand that there are no wrong materials - there is an error in combination.
example: the widespread habit of warming house walls extruded polystyrene leads to a vapor material that locks moisture inside.The error in the calculation of the thickness of the material leads to the fact that the dew point can move to the inner side of the insulation.Between the wall and Epps, it picks up moisture, and durability is greatly reduced.
detail about the dew point, and errors associated with incorrect selection of a vapor barrier on the example of frame houses described in this article.
Roman Nikonov :
- very cautiously it is necessary to approach the multi-layered structures.For example, a bar, surrounded by a brick, do not caulk the outside.
air gap in the masonry with insulation must be ventilated, or perhaps soggy design.
error 7. Wrong choice of roofing material
roof is constantly exposed to adverse weather conditions.
It must withstand heavy wind and snow load and protects the house from rain.
The rules for the calculation of snow load in the suburbs is about 180 kg per 1 sq.m.
Often when choosing a roofing material developers are guided by a factor of visual appeal.This is the wrong approach.
Roman Nikonov :
- Roofing in central Russia should be resistant to multiple crossings of "0" in the winter.
In this regard, we must be very careful, for example, to ceramic tiles, as some of her views sufficiently porous and quickly destroyed by freezing-thawing.
choosing a roofing material in the first place should be guided by its properties in relation to our climatic conditions.
And in conclusion I want to give advice to new posts nickname Muzliki:
- not to build anything temporary!Sincethere is nothing more permanent than temporary shelters.
Building physics or educational program for samostroyschika - read about it in this thread.The most complete collection of tips novice developers available here.Here the user forumhouse.ru detail about the correct approach to the construction.Construction errors, or how not to step on the "rake" - read in this thread.