Anyone who regularly reads forumhouse.ru, well aware that the reliability of the foundation depends largely on the life of home and comfort of living in it.
One of the most important steps that directly affect the quality of the base, it is correct markup foundation.
Recently, for this increasingly used modern measuring devices.
course, theodolite or laser level greatly facilitate the construction works.
However, every developer will be useful basic skills for manual marking of the foundation.
How to start counting the basement?
first thing that comes to mind - nastrogat pegs stock strong cord, a tape measure, understand how gidrouroven, and you can start marking.Is it really?
for quality marking foundation of the house is necessary to make a plan that includes two successive steps:
1. No matter what the foundation is required for the project - a belt, or a slab pile, you first need to find out the exact boundaries of the site.
2. Then, on the foundation of a piece of paper tied to the t
This step will keep SNIP 02.30.97, regulates the distance from home to the borders of neighboring land.
Learn about the minimum distances between the neighboring houses can be in this topic.
- The layout of the foundation I started with, retreated 5 meters from the red line along the border area.
To mark the foundation you need:
- lace - skein of strong cord or fishing line;
When marking the foundation is better to use the cord.Against the background of grass or the ground line was visually is lost, while the cord is clearly visible in white.
- wooden frame, or as it is called - "bench".
- as shoelaces better to use nylon thread thickness of 1.5-2 mm, asit is well tightened and does not sag.
- When marking the foundation I used polypropylene yarn thickness of 1 mm.It has high strength.
«a bench" - your assistant when marking the foundation
«benches» significantly simplifies and speeds up the layout of the basement.Her knock together two wooden bars.The lower ends are tapered, and the top and middle nailed two horizontal crossbar.For greater stability at an angle to the posts nailed two thrust plates.It turns triangular base.The two self-tapping screw the bar, which then fastens the strap.
course, simple and small foundations can mark, scoring only pegs.But when it comes to complex foundation - a big house, "bench", by which is posting the foundation, it is a must.
number of "benches" increases in direct proportion to the complexity of the foundation.
screwing screws or twisting the bar, at different distances from each other you can adjust the width between the cord, which should correspond to the width of the cushion base.
Check geometry to lay out the foundation
So we decided where the foundation will be erected on the site.We prepare all the necessary tools and materials.Now you need to determine the angle of the base, which will set the future direction of the wall.At this point, hammered a peg.Then, departing from peg 1 to 2 meters, set the "bench".
indentation needs to at excavation, for example under the strip foundation, the frame does not interfere with digging techniques to maneuver and fell into a trench dug.The width of the trench is dug as a reserve with respect to the width of the tape foundation for smooth formwork!
After installing benches in the self-tapping screws attached cord.After that is metered by the peg, we need a distance which is generally equal to the longest wall.At this point, trying to drive the second peg, set the second "bench" at the same distance from the peg as the first, and pull cords.
- Installed posting retained until all foundation work.Due to retreat from the foundation, the thread can be removed and tighten as necessary.
- If a lot of benches, then immediately make all the points should not be.Due to the large amount of lace is only hinders operation.
At the outset it is important to mark the foundation to put the right angle between the alleged walls.If this is not done immediately, the omission can lead to disastrous results.
- Before you start to dig a trench under the foundation, we have carefully remeasure all diagonals foundation .Dimensions agreed.But after the formwork has appeared, that one side smaller than the other foundation 40 cm!How could this happen?
- This is called an isosceles trapezoid.In this figure, even if all the diagonal agreed, the foundation will still get the curve.
line, the sides of which are equal is called an isosceles or equilateral.In an isosceles trapezoid the same diagonal, but the angles are not equal to 90 degrees.
How to get the right angle when marking the foundation?
to remember that the Pythagorean theorem: the square of the hypotenuse of a right triangle is equal to the sum of the squares of the other two sides.
order to find the right angle with the layout of the foundation should use the formula: 3² + 4² = 5² .
essence consists in the following formula:
If the measure of one side of the foundation - 3 meters, and in the other - 4 meters, then at an angle of 90 degrees between them equals the diagonal - 5 meters.
Using this proportion, it is possible to mark angles all around the foundation.
- I have tried to put right angles lasers, but diagonally got easier and more accurate.
To simplify the layout of the right angle, you can advance to put together the right triangle with sides of planks or welded together pieces of rebar.
Thus, when marking the foundation of the main thing - to measure seven times and once to dig out!
about how to properly mark the foundation and avoid the errors can be read here and here.Everything you wanted to know about the layout of the pit under the cap, there is in this topic.
about how to fix the "pitfalls" in purchased homes here.From this video you will learn how to transform a problematic foundation for the old house.