Solid fuel boiler - especially the selection and operation.

By Admin | Stoves And Fireplaces
09 April 2016

Due to the constant rise in energy prices and the high cost of gas supply an increasing number of people are paying attention to solid fuel boilers.

Today the market offers more than a dozen models of boilers using coal, wood or fuel briquettes.

Not to be mistaken with a choice, you should know a number of features of this type of heating equipment.

Solid fuel boilers run on these fuels:

  • UHL;
  • wood;
  • pellets;
  • briquettes;
  • wood chips;
  • filings;
  • peat.

So, to choose the best TT pot, you must:

1. Determine what type of fuel most available in your area of ​​residence.It may be that somewhere profitable heated with wood, and somewhere - coal or peat.

There are models of boilers which work on two of three types of energy, such as firewood and electricity.During the day a boiler to heat the house, working in the wood, and at night turns on the electric heating element.This scheme is the most optimal accessibility when the night tariff for electricity.

2. Choose the desired output of the boiler.

approximate capacity of the boiler is calculated as CT - heating 10 square meters.m space needs 1 kW.This proportion is valid for well-insulated house with a ceiling height of up to three meters.

3. Determine whether you want to only heat the house or also need hot water for domestic use.In this case, double-or single-loop placed TT boiler attached to it with a boiler of indirect heating.

indirect heating boiler heats water using the heat of the heating system and electricity.This allows you to "do not drive" boiler for domestic hot water at the end of the heating season.

4. Determine the purpose of the use of the boiler.For example: permanent (permanent), occasionally (holiday mode), or as a backup system.

When selecting boiler for permanent residence in the first place out of its reliability, durability and economy.The less fuel is needed loading the boiler, the more comfortable to use.

dependence of the power of the solid fuel boiler from

Calorie and different heat fuels differ from each other.Therefore, the boiler output and, therefore, while it is running on one tab can vary significantly.


- Buying TT pot, many think that his power does not depend on the type of fuel burned.In fact, the fall of power by burning less calorie fuel (for example, a damp firewood) can reach 25-30%.

When the TT boiler fuel with a moisture content of 25-35% power loss increases.In addition, there is a rapid formation of a deposit, and the boiler will have to be cleaned every 3-5 days.

is important to know that the technical descriptions often written boilers maximum power.When selecting a TT boiler must be considered that the power is indicated when running on fuels with a low content of moisture and under optimum conditions.In fact, using less caloric fuel, or if it has accumulated moisture boiler output may differ materially from those stated by the manufacturer.


- The first question to be asked when choosing a boiler - which had the maximum and minimum power?Also - as far as it works efficiently in these modes.

Why is it important to know?

Example: The boiler has a power range from 5 to 30 kW.The time of his burning on one tab is from 4 to 12 hours.

Therefore, the maximum he would give an average of 120 kWh, but at a minimum - only 60 kWh.


- It is important to understand that not all of the heating season, the boiler operates at nominal capacity.It turns out that the boiler such data most of the time working optimally, and has poor efficiency.

Pros and cons of heating solid fuel boiler

solid fuel boilers We have a number of advantages:

  • a wide range of models;
  • low price for fuel,
  • TT boiler does not require large initial investments compared to the cost of settlement of the gas or the gas tank to the installation site;
  • autonomy sinceTT boiler operates without connection to the mains.

But TT boilers are not without drawbacks:

  • low efficiency - up to 80%;
  • low degree of automation: requires the constant presence of a person to load fuel into the boiler (on average - every 6-8 hours).

Most solid fuel boilers running the following cycle:

  • loading fuel into the furnace;
  • heating boiler;
  • burning fuel in the furnace;
  • cooling of the boiler;
  • cleaning of the boiler combustion products: ash, coal.


- When you stop the boiler heat transfer fluid in the system cools down, respectively, the temperature in the house falls.

TT boilers with cast iron heat exchangers are less sensitive to the quality and hardness of the water, but more demanding temperature coolant backflow.

If the "return line" heating system supplies cold water, due to a sharp temperature gradient coil iron boilers can be destroyed.


- boilers with steel heat exchanger warmed up quickly.They are not afraid of sharp temperature drop of the coolant.However, these boilers are more demanding of the fuel and the chimney.

optimal scheme of using solid fuel boiler

Based on the experience of users, we can say that the best option is the following scheme: it is the combination of TA and TT boiler (heat accumulator), which is installed between the boiler and heating system.

TA - is a large, well-warmed water tank.

heat accumulator performs the following functions:

  • accumulates heat and gradually gives its heating system;
  • protects the boiler from overheating becauseTA superheated coolant mixes with plenty of warm water;
  • based on TA can create a single heating system, which enters all the heat generating equipment in the house - solid fuel boiler elektrokotёl and so on. Etc .;
  • TA extends the life of the boiler and, as it keeps a certain stock of already heated water, it reduces fuel consumption and increases the efficiency of the system;
  • TA increases the time between the loading of fuel, which has a positive effect on the comfort of living in the home: do not need to get up in the night and lay a new batch of fuel into the boiler.

However, in conjunction TA and TT is the "pitfalls".


- heat accumulators There are open and closed.Outdoor TA - a container with water, which is immersed in a heat exchanger.The water in the boiler heats the TA, and the heat exchanger takes the heat to the heating system.If the area of ​​the heat exchanger properly selected (rendered low) and it could not cope with the transmission power, this leads to the fact that TA boils, and the batteries in the home - barely warm.

Safety for heating solid fuel boiler

solid fuel, as opposed to a liquid, burns longer.When burning wood or coal emit a lot of heat, and the solid fuel boiler, possessing inertia, can instantly cool down and stop working, even with complete coverage of air into the furnace.

When heated heat transfer fluid is significantly increased in volume, and this excess should be put somewhere.

If you do not, then the situation could spiral out of control: pipes or radiators tear, and in flagrant violation of the rules of mounting solid-boiler might explode.

To avoid this, the heating system is inserted into an expansion tank to clear excess fluid.

expansion tanks are of two types:

1. Closed - a closed tank, equipped with a safety valve for excess pressure relief.

2. Open - an open tank, which has a message to the atmosphere.

This tank is usually mounted at the top of the heating system, for example, in the attic.

This provides unobstructed discharge of the excess pressure out of the system.


- For TT boiler is better to use open system with natural circulation of coolant.

heating system of a country house built on a solid fuel boiler, first of all, requires the calculation of a competent and careful observance of all safety measures.

All information about the requirements for the boiler is available here.The main criteria for selecting TT boiler described in this topic.Pyrolysis boilers - Myth or Reality?The answer to this question, you will learn here.The better to heat solid fuel boiler?Read in this issue.Watch the battle between the boiler and the pyrolysis solid-usual at this link.

As heat a large house with no gas - look in this video.From this video you will learn how to build their own "smart" solid-fuel heating system.