Fire protection in questions and answers

By Admin | Security Systems
14 April 2016

Question: Is the use of self-contained smoke detectors?

Answer: They stand out among the means of active fire protection because they can react to smoke at an early stage of fire and can sound an alarm to warn residents about the threat of fire.The power supply of the device (battery type "Crone") provides its continuous operation for a year or more.If necessary, they are linked to the LAN.In the US, fire detectors equipped with 88% of apartments in Canada - 100%.
According to analysts, by using autonomous smoke detectors number of casualties is reduced by 64-69%, the number of fires decreased by 25-30%, property damage is reduced by 19-26%.

Q: What is involved in constructive methods of fire protection of building structures?

Answer: To this end, the following activities:

- concreting;
- brick lining;
- plastering the surface of structural elements;
- the use of large-sized sheet of plate and fireproof linings;
- the use of flame retardant structural elements (eg ceilings);
- filling the internal cavities of structures;
- selection of necessary cross sections of components that provide the required fire resistance of structures limit values.Thus using the same grade of concrete, brick and other materials, as in the manufacture of the protected structure;
- to develop constructive solutions of joints, couplings and connections designs.

Question: What indicators are characterized by fire resistance constructions?

Answer: According to the SNIP 21-01-97 "Fire safety of buildings and structures," constructions have a fire hazard and fire resistance.
fire hazard of building materials define the following fire-technical characteristics: combustibility, flammability, flame spread over the surface, smoke-forming ability, toxicity.

Under fire resistance refers to the ability of the building structure to resist the effects of fire and water in case of fire.
limit of fire resistance of the structure or the material - is the number of minutes since the start of fire (contact with the fire) before the construction or material failure.Failure can be defined:

- loss of load-carrying capacity;
- collapse;
- the emergence of irreversible deformation or through cracks;
- heating to raise the temperature on the opposite surface of the fire over 220 ° (which is above the autoignition possible organic materials).

limit of fire resistance of building structures set the time of occurrence of one or more series of standardized signs for the design limit states: loss of bearing capacity (R), loss of integrity (E), the loss of insulating ability (I).

Question: What are the different types of fire protection chemicals?

Answer: Chemical fire protection means are divided into wash, varnishes and impregnation.
wash solutions are based on cement, asbestos and other similar materials.They are applied to the protected design similar to a thick layer of plaster, preventing contact with the surface of the flame.Such compositions are mainly used to protect metal structures and brick walls.Coating can withstand a direct effect of fire for several hours.
Fire retardant paints and varnishes are applied by conventional methods and provide protection structures due to the presence of special substances - fire retardants.

Such compositions at temperatures of +200 ... + 300 ° begins to foam, preventing contact with the surface fire.Eye-catching with the noncombustible gas creates an additional insulating layer.Paints and varnishes, in contrast to the plasters have a wide range of colors and give the surface a decorative look, they can be used inside the premises.They are used for coloring metal and wooden structures.

Fireproof impregnation applied on wood and fabric, and other porous surfaces.There are deep and superficial.At a certain temperature in the impregnated material substitution reaction starting with absorption of energy, and fire retardants.Impregnation applied only to "open" the wood, not treated previously by paints or other formulations.It does not apply to highly wet surface.Most impregnations colorless and does not change the natural appearance of the wood surface, but is not resistant to leaching, which limits their use on exposed surfaces and finishing involves applying protective coatings.Typically, fireproofing impregnation have also fungicidal activity.

Question: How to protect construction elements fire retardant paint, lacquers, enamels?

Answer: Fire retardant paints, varnishes, enamels delayed ignition of materials, reduce the flame spread on the surface of materials.They perform the following functions: is a protective layer on the surface of the material to absorb heat from the decomposition inhibitor is isolated gases release water, accelerate the formation of coke on the surface of the material layer.They are divided into 2 groups: nevspuchivayuschiesya and intumescent.

Q: How do intumescent paint?

Answer: When heated, increasing the thickness of the paint layer at 10 - 40 times.Typically, intumescent paint more efficient since thermal effects the formation of the foam layer, which is the charred melt incombustibles (mineral residue).The formation of this layer occurs due to the gas evolved when heated and vaporized substances.Coke layer has high insulating properties.

Q: What other means other than varnishes, paints and enamels, used for fire protection of wood?

A: protected surface compositions are applied paste-like consistency, protect against fire, though not with sufficient decorative properties.Also used impregnation, an aqueous solution of salts (fire retardants).They are administered by deep pressure impregnation method, or heating-cold bath.

Question: How is the creation of materials reduced flammability?

Answer: This is achieved by superficial and deep impregnation of materials with special structures, the introduction of flame retardants in the initial composition, the use of different mineral fillers, as well as through the use of a variety of processing methods.

Q: What is the flame retardants?

Answer: This chemical substance or mixture that prevent burning.The flame retardants are introduced by impregnating wood in autoclaves, in hot-cold baths.When the surface treatment is applied by brush or spray.Flame retardants are not water resistant.To protect against leaching impregnated wooden structures in damp conditions should be added to cover the water-resistant or flame-retardant paints weatherproof.

Q: How do I fire coating hozblok and barns?

A: To protect hozpostroek is fireproof clay-lime-salt coating (IGSO) is a mixture of lime putty with clay and table salt.After processing the wood belongs to the flame-retardant materials.The composition is applied by brush in 2 layers with intermediate drying for at least 12 hours at a temperature of 18-20 °, relative humidity of 70%.Drying time - no more than 24 hours. Colour white.Consumption per 1 square meter of surface to be protected - 1.4 kg.

also only for fire protection inside the barns, attics and other "for show" premises used plaster fire superphosphate (SFD), because it creates is not the most aesthetic appearance.Fireproof wood composition SFD refers to inflammable materials.The composition is applied by brush in 2 layers with intermediate drying of at least 12 hours. Consumption SFD - 1.6 kg / sq.Complete drying at a temperature of 18-20 ° and 70% humidity will be about 2 days.Color dry coating - white.

Q: How to make plaster fire superphosphate (SFD)?

Answer: SFD - a mixture of well-known to everyone cottagers fertilizer - superphosphate with water.The iron or wooden crates filled the required amount of superphosphate.Then, it is added with vigorous stirring to water a paint consistency.Freshly SFD should be used within 6 hours.

Question: Can I prepare their own plaster IGSO?

Answer: Yes.It is prepared in a timber or corrosion-resistant metal containers as follows.Hydrated lime is ground and sifted through a fine sieve, and then kneaded with water to dough in a ratio of 1/1.For a better kneading dough to make in 1-2 days before cooking wash.Table salt also crushed, sieved, mixed with water.Then add the required amount of clay.When the clay dough is mixed with lime (to do it as closely as possible), IGSO ready for use.Keep it recommended in a closed container.

Question: How increased fire metallic structures?

Answer: In the development of fire protection and fire protection of steel structures of light metal panels with effective insulation in recent years there has been a trend towards the use of lightweight materials and lightweight aggregates, perlite and vermiculite, a mineral fiber.Highly efficient use of intumescent paints.When heated to 170 ° paint swells and forms on the metal surface a porous thermal insulation layer.For fire protection metal piece used as insulating panels.

Q: What formulations can be used for fire protection of metal air ducts?

A: To protect the supply and exhaust air duct systems, general ventilation, local exhausts systems and air conditioning systems are recommended Firex Firex 300 and 400. These flame-retardant coating (matte or gray) on the basis of inorganic form in the process of fire foam heat insulating layer.Drying takes place for 12 hours. Application: spray or brush.Solvent - water.

for protection of steel structures used primed Fayfleks-KRILAK - fire retardant paint, in the case of fire foam heat insulating layer.Paint matte white or light gray.It has high resistance to moisture.Using decorative and insulating layer "Duranol" allows to maintain coverage under atmospheric conditions.Drying takes 16 hours. Application: spray, brush, roller.The solvent - white spirit.

Q: Are there any cover to protect against fire, resulting from a short circuit?

Answer: Pasta OGRAX - B, B-1-M is used for coating cables (all types of power, communications and control with rubber or plastic sheath) laid inside buildings.The coating effectively protects against fire, resulting from a short circuit or an external fire source.It has high elasticity, good adhesion to the cable insulation, resistance to the environment;It has good thermal conductivity and does not require reduction of current loads.The coating is non-hygroscopic, allow short-term (up to 20 minutes, not more than 1 time per month) effects of nebulized water.Freeze cover is not allowed.

Protect cables installed outdoors and in humid conditions, it is achieved by the use of organic-based paste (OGRAX-M), which has a high water and weather resistance.

protects the surface should be dry and free from dirt, grease, oil, etc.
paste is pre-mixed and applied by brush, roller, air or airless spraying in layers in multiple passes with the temperature not lower than + 5 ° C and a relative humidity of85%.Intermediate drying between coats 6-10 hours. Complete drying coating lasts for a long time - 10-15 days.Diluent - Water and ethyl acetate (OGRAX M).The thickness of the fire-retardant coating 0.5-0.8 mm.Consumption: from 0.96 to 1.80 kg / m.

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