However, along with the joys and worries come, because whether your house will stand for many years, delighting generations depends entirely on your prudence.And the most important thing, which is, above all, should be concerned - this fire safety of the building.The fact that it is not necessary to fall asleep with a cigarette unquenched, known to all, as well as about the fact that "matches are not toys for children."But this is only the tip of the iceberg of fire - a fire hazard and can become raging elements, and the accumulated static electricity, gas explosion, and a problem with the wiring.In this article, we will consider what steps need to be taken home fire safety at every stage of the construction of a private house.
Safety first line
extremely important step in terms of fire safety - design.Do not trust the project "experienced" the foreman, and make better desig
Thus, the distance between adjacent buildings must be at least 12 meters from the house to the garage - no less than 10 meters to a large parking lot - at least 35.If the garage is attached to the house, before leaving it in the residential part of the need to provide a small vestibule with a metal door.
for quick evacuation in case of fire in advance Consider a few options - it is desirable to have two entrances into the house from the hallway.An important point: the doors, especially doors, should always open outward, not into the room.Do not make "almost impassable" sections of narrow, winding corridors, which are easy to get lost.
Ladder better not to build in the middle of the house, and along one wall, with natural light through glazed windows on each floor.If it is the only one in the cottage, it is not recommended to do it spiral.The optimum height of the steps - not more than 22 cm, width of ladder - from 90 cm and more. If the house has a large area (over 500 sq. M), it makes sense to design not just one but two or three stairs in different parts of the buildings to make it easier toaccess them from distant rooms on the second and third floors.
All elements of the interior decoration and made of combustible materials (such as wood), must be removed by 30-40 cm from heat sources - furnaces and fireplaces.Fireplace located only in well-ventilated areas around it is "non-combustible floor" with a minimum width of 0.8 m, which is trim sheet metal or natural stone.The chimney is desirable to isolate the non-combustible material.Under very heavy design fireplaces own foundation - the base is made of refractory bricks, iron or clay fireclay.
parallel with the design of the house must go and designing of engineering networks, primarily electricians.
load calculation should be based on calculating the capacity of the local power plant - and your network can not "pull" two Jacuzzis and electric heating.You should not rely on a model project, which is now sold in a variety of - each network requires an individual approach.
particularly biased power supply must be designed bathrooms, saunas, swimming pools and kitchens.In particular, it is impossible to install any wiring, sockets, switches and high-voltage lamps near 0.6 m from the source of water, and ceiling and wall lights and close the shades raised to not less than 2 m above the water level - in the case of water ingress into the wall outlet oron a hot light bulb can cause a short circuit and, consequently, arcing and fires.
In modern suburban homes is a natural measure of safety grounding network using the earthing - is a construction of steel pins, dig in the ground to a certain depth.She is joined by a grounding bus - it brings together all of the utilities houses that conduct current, including all metal pipes and metal parts of the building structure.
In the main electrical cabinet have to be installed an RCD (residual current device), protection from sparks and fire with small faults in the network, as well as the lightning arresters, saving surge caused by lightning and surges.Internal wiring is best to make a copper - it is more durable and less brittle than aluminum.
protect cables fireproof shells from a special polyethylene - this is especially important if the electricity is conducted in-house with the help of false self-supporting cable extending from the common overhead power line.When selecting cables and wires should pay attention to non-flammable products Pirelli (NOKIA), NEXANS and Sevkabel.
If the house is planned to hold the gas should provide special automatic sensors, gas shut-off in case of a leak.Such a system produces, for example, HANKOOK GAS KIKI.
Even before construction of the owner to decide the important question: what materials are preferred?The choice depends on the thickness of the purse, and from the aesthetic preferences - someone dreams about the "hut", one sees in the imagination of cutting-edge "box" with panoramic windows.However, whatever the basic material you choose, you will be faced with the problem of fire safety.
preferred to combine it with another question - home insulation.For warming of family houses, experts recommend rock wool insulation (for example, a world leader in the field of production, ROCKWOOL) - material capable of withstanding temperatures of about 1,000 degrees Celsius, preventing the emergence and spread of fire, increasing the fire safety of constructions and not released in case of fire, toxicsubstances.Fireproof insulation screen is recommended to protect the outer walls and roof, floors and interior partitions, paying particular attention to the air ducts, chimneys, the vestibule, boiler room, cellar, sauna and the adjoining structures.
way, while insulating the attic or non-combustible insulation slabs are usually no problems arise - you need only to choose the all layers of the "pie" and put insulating material continuous layer, without gaps, so you can do on their own, without attracting builders.But installation of facade insulation (plaster or curtain walls) to the need to attract professionals - authorized contractors whose specialists have been trained and received a certificate of qualification.
For example, installation of non-combustible facade system ROCKWOOL ROCKFACADE carried out by contractors, having some kind of certificate of aptitude for the theory and practice of installation.
As is known, the most combustible material to build a house - a tree.His view is also important: the fastest burning pine and spruce, oak and here the most "stable".All wooden parts - joists, rafters, floors, walls - is impregnated with special protective substances that increase the fire resistance.Today, mostly salt impregnation containing flame retardants.But keep in mind that the composition is able to penetrate deep into the wood just a couple of millimeters and is not a panacea for the fire.It is only up to 30 minutes delay the spread of flames.
brick and concrete, at first glance, fire-resistant materials, but in fact exposed to open fire, they crack and lose their bearing capacity.To improve the fire safety of brick or concrete walls, two possible schemes: either the device design "wall-wall insulation," or the exterior façade system.
Fire, "coming" from above - not a rarity in houses with roofs made of metal or of metal, if the materials are placed directly on the crate or on a sheet of roofing material.The metal is isolated from the ground, and even in the absence of thunderstorms in the roof of accumulated atmospheric electricity that needs to discharge.To avoid this, a metal roof is to protect the paving between the sheets and crate the layer of non-combustible insulation.
interior and exterior
Decorating the house - a matter of taste.However, the selection of materials should not forget about the simple rules of fire safety.
choosing exterior trim, look for natural and fire-resistant materials.Plastic siding is undesirable - it allocates the combustion of harmful substances.
Brick House can impose a natural or artificial stone, decorative brick.If you have a wooden cottage, and you have decided to decorate it with carved architraves, cornices and shuttered, all the decorative items must be treated with fire retardant impregnation.The paint is applied to the tree layer of at least 2 mm.
Interior decoration materials should be natural, when burning it does not emit toxic smoke acrid.From this point of view not recommended plastic wall panels, decorative polyurethane moldings and details.
And materials such as, for example, cotton, jute and textile wallpaper, cork, natural floorboards, parquet, linoleum, natural-based, Venetian plaster, in the case of fire, do not emit harmful gases, but, unfortunately, burn.Higher compared to their fire resistance have natural stone, tile, brick, ceramic tile, metal, ceramic, refractory glass, glass.
can pay attention to the base under the wallpaper.For internal cladding of a private house, and as a base for wallpaper better not to use plywood or particleboard, and GCR (drywall), or GVL (gipsovolokno) - are natural and non-combustible materials.
Decoration: useful things
All owners of country houses are strongly advised to "just fire" fire extinguisher.It would be the best of its kind foam capacity of 10 liters.On the big house need at least two copies.An additional precaution is a barrel of water, which should be kept in the garden, and carpenter's ax.
If the house there are additional "risk zone" (this, for example, applies a wine cellar), is to provide a single fire extinguisher within reach, and, of course, fire-resistant walls and floor.
Candles, despite the use of this romantic lighting in a country house for the holidays or special moments in life should not be left unattended and light in large quantities, placing directly on wooden surfaces without refractory supports.Especially since you can not hold hanging chandeliers, "like in the old days," or to use kerosene lamps for "Entourage."
before, not after
word "fire" is often seen by those who are just planning their own device at home, nominal, but in fact the "Red Rooster" walking through the villages and cottage settlements more often than you think.According to statistics, the country houses for the most part it is insured against fire, because the fire caused by natural, technological, or "man-made" causes, it is not uncommon in Russia.And in this case, so as not to lose all that is acquired back-breaking labor, refer to the most correct principle - the problem is best addressed before it occurs