The cornerstone of any electrics in the apartment - a socket, switch and wiring are installed in a certain order.First, you must find the most suitable place to position the mounting box.This course is available for a variety of wall (brick, concrete or drywall).This is followed by the so-called support (supporting device with clips or screws), and after him - the mechanism and finally - decorative frame.Typically, such a mechanism is set at the beginning of repair work in the process of Electricity and decorative frame - after completion.
Naturally, any electrical engineering
behind these letter designations hiding certain sense.For example, AVVG - cable with aluminum wire and insulation and sheath of flexible PVC, KG stands for flexible cable.When the marking is present the letter "A" means current-carrying conductor is made of aluminum, while its absence indicates the presence of a copper conductor.Depending on the destination number of wires can vary from 2 to 10.
What is the difference between an aluminum conductor from the copper?Copper has a considerably higher performance.It can withstand several times the number of bends in the assembly work.Electrical resistance of copper is 1.5 times less than that of aluminum.So instead of aluminum wire, for example, section 2.5 sq.mm can apply a copper cross-section of 1.5 sq.mm.Finally, aluminum lower limit ductility, and if aluminum compound excessively tighten the bolts, then eventually it will weaken.Copper can be bent many times, and aluminum suffers from increased fragility.
are most important of all - the wiring in the house
Cables and wires are available for a particular purpose.For example, a wire with a brand AR is designed for distribution of electric energy in power and lighting networks, both inside and outside.A cable KRSHU used for installation of control systems in a variety of electrical installations and is resistant to microorganisms, soil water and ozone.
We can not talk about cable NYM.The wire of this type is one of the most reliable.It provides an additional layer of chalk-rubber insulation that prevents the formation of cracks under adverse conditions.As an external insulation is used more elastic plastic compound, which also increases the electrical safety.NYM wire used for the installation of internal wiring (300-500 V) in dry and wet areas on the outside walls and under the plaster, masonry, concrete.
cable is chosen on the basis of what kind of house you have the wiring - hidden or open.For example, in Stalin's homes and old country houses are usually the wires fastened directly on the wall - is an open wiring.Now it is mainly used in non-residential areas, offices.Cables and mechanism of "overlap" directly on the wall or hidden in the cable channels.Previously, when a wiring circuit breakers were attached only by the spacers "legs", now they are screwed to a special mounting box placed in the wall cavity.In modern urban apartments and cottages make concealed wiring - clean wires in the wall.Since mounting boxes come in different sizes, with the purchase of sockets and switches should pay special attention to this.It is desirable that all the components have a single standard.
They are not afraid of no water, no moisture
switches are most often single and two, rarely three-key.If you need more keys, you can join a group of single or series switch common frame (European way), or purchase a product or Korean American manufacturers with six keys.Each of these keys is placed lighting (bulb European models have only one-button switch).Burning light bulb indicates that the light or device is turned on.
switches, designed for mounting on the street, in saunas and bathrooms, different from the usual.To withstand high humidity, in which between the decorative cover and the inner part is placed a plastic or rubber cover, silicone gaskets.If the switch accidentally gets a jet of water, you can not be afraid of short-circuit, as its contacts are protected.Recently invented even vandal switches for public spaces.To break or break high-impact plastic or metal in them is very difficult.
There are so-called switches: press a key in one of the houses - light turns on in the other - off.Or entering into a long corridor, light a light switch located next to the entrance, and extinguish the other, at the opposite end of the corridor.Before leaving, you are doing this procedure in reverse order.Such devices are very handy when moving from one floor to another, as well as in offices where there is no need to go to a dark corridor.
outlets to suit all tastes
Besides the usual, now also available for the different types of sockets designed for your TV and VCR, refrigerator, telephone, radio, computer, antenna.Sold even outlet with overvoltage protection.They will save your expensive and complex equipment from unpleasant surprises.Another very useful invention is useful for those who have small children.Instead of the usual outlets that are a magnet for the baby in the nursery and other places that fall in the "areas of interest", established outlets with protective shutters.Unlock can only plug the plug.Sometimes you have to put a lot of effort to pull the plug.These problems will not be, if you put the service outlet.Click on the "ear" - and she jumps out of the plug socket.
Gradually, sockets and switches was the same as with many other parts of interior - from utilitarian, limited equipment, they moved into the category of accessories, jewelry.And now they have become the subject of attention on the part of designers from around the world.
Currently, the production of sockets and switches are engaged in many firms.In Europe alone, there are tens of companies.Modern series of such products can be divided into massive and "haute couture", which differ in price and purpose.In recent years, in addition to the usual plastic in vogue other materials such as natural wood, natural or artificial stone.
apply and metals - steel, aluminum, brass, chrome, there's even a gold and silver alloys.The design of these devices are used all finishes.Sockets are transparent, matt and shiny, smooth and rough, shimmering and flickering effect.Due to such variety of textures and colors, as well as lines and shapes you can choose the perfect option for any style, be it: the Empire, Art Nouveau, Baroque, Country and even high - tech, in fact, turning the conventional apparatus in a decent interior decor.Special designs allow in case of change of wallpaper and update the look of the body without touching the whole mechanism, but only replacing a frame or key.
Avtovyklyuchateli and RCD
Application breakers (AB) and devices (RCD) ensures the safety of the negative consequences that carries electrical.
Circuit breakers provide protection as short circuit and overload (thermal protection).RCD prevent any possibility of injury to persons or pets electrocution.RCD oversee the leakage current, and turns off the network by increasing the nominal value of the leakage over.This typically occurs when an insulation fault or faults in electrical installations.If there is a technique that consumes a lot of energy (washing machine, a hot tub and so on.) - Without having to install the RCD is necessary.
modern security requirements and allow for differential production machines, where the circuit breaker and RCD constructively installed in one housing.Today, the St. Petersburg market similar devices are available from companies such as: international group ABB, Legrand (France), Siemens (Germany), as well as Polish and Czech producers.
They feature a modular design and universal mounting: the circuit-breakers are suitable for companies of all rail fastening elements - the so-called DIN-rail.The design allows the DIN-rails string switches from 2 to several pieces in a row, depending on the need.
electrician on the verge of fantasy
addition to traditional switches, sockets, and their various combinations of modern manufacturers also offer the latest developments, many of which can be called "the wonders of science."For example, the dimmer (or even called dimmer) quietly help you choose the right brightness of the light in the room, from the muted glow of the night before the holiday.
Another "clever trick" - a timer.It eliminates the need to personally manage the light regime in the house.You just need to ask him the time, "opening-closing" and the rest will take care of it yourself, for example, timely open the blinds and shutters.
If you after a hard day's work, there will be no strength even to press the switches, room sensors will make it for you.They themselves will react to your movements through the apartment.As you move through the different rooms, the light will automatically turn on at the entrance, and off - when you exit.
Timer "astroprogrammoy" acting in accordance with the exact time of sunrise and sunset for each day of the year.If you are going on vacation or a business trip, this device will simulate your presence.It will regularly turn on and off the light, each day at different times.
interesting and such a development as outdoor motion sensor, whereby once you enter on a site next to the house, the light turns on.It made a special motion sensor and the night-time, which found a "stranger" in the territory of the garden and will give a signal of danger.
For convenience, the system used a remote control (RC).With their help, you can include turning off lights, electrical appliances, adjust the brightness of the lamps, open-close blinds and so on. Infrared control action at a distance not exceeding 15 m and only line of sight.Radio Receivers operate at a distance of 150 meters, and can be used "out of the corner."
«ray of light" in the living room
now from sockets and switches to move fixtures.Light effects, which are actively used in the design of modern interiors (ceiling lights, directions, local, decorative light, etc.) not only successfully decorate apartments and offices, but also provide them with optimum lighting.
Driving lighting the living room and dining room should combine two qualities: the light should be directed where it is needed (for example, at the dinner table), and the balance of light and shade needs to work on improving the appearance of the room.
Living - the most sophisticated facilities for lighting, because they have a fairly broad functional significance.However, the main approach to achieve the comfort of a light in the room is the need to achieve a sufficient background light, which, depending on the mood of the home can vary from bright to moderate.The main background can create a chandelier or light mnogolampovoy soft glow spot lamps from the ceiling.Lighting living room should emphasize the individual characteristics of the room.This effect is achieved by using directional light devices.
In the area where there are sofas and armchairs, it is appropriate use of floor lamps, cozy atmosphere can give a dim wall sconces.Paintings, shop windows with utensils, spectacular niche can be highlighted in single, double or triple lamps projector type based on halogen lamps or modern fluorescent tubes in the wall holder.
dining room, bedroom ... - then everywhere
The dining room serves the main object of lighting the dining table, which requires a fairly bright, but also easily transformed world.Therefore, we can not do without adjustable length lamps with shades of different materials.Additional lighting in the dining room often requires a snack bar or other place where meals are served.For these purposes, you can use lamps or lamps are directional light.The bedroom
overall level of coverage may be lower than in the living room.Here you can mix the muted background light (such as a point) with local fixtures in which it would be convenient to read in bed, make-up, change clothes.The role of local fixtures in the bedrooms perform sconces and table lamps on the bedside tables.Local lighting should be bright, but not blinding.
The modern kitchen all working surfaces, where the cooking, washing up and other operations, are usually located on the perimeter of the room, which removes the need for a strong central lamp.Therefore, in this case more rational to illuminate the whole well plate, a cutting table and a sink.It is also convenient to have adequate background lighting inside the cabinets.The bathrooms are necessary to moderate background illumination, created by tight central lamp or more "recessed" devices.Above the mirror is appropriate to install additional lighting (eg fluorescent tubes).
Recommendations when purchasing electrical equipment is very simple: to inspect the selected item.On the inner side should be set to the current and voltage, and an icon of quality standard of the country of origin.Also require the seller certification documents.Set electrician acquired reliably and accurately help you experienced professionals.
As we have just seen, the design is very modern fixtures and diverse in style, and decorative performance.A modern market allows you to choose a harmonious lighting fixture for almost any interior, make a reality of all representations owner of a cozy and a decent home.