Hidden wiring is safe in the fire relation, since it is located in the interior of fireproof material (when laying under plaster on a wooden wall by wires enclose a layer of asbestos 3 mm) and air access to it difficult.Mechanical damage to the flush is limited.The action of sunlight, dust, gases insulation is excluded.The main drawback - the inability to connect the new alteration without collectors.
to cut off the wires lay flat on the shortest distance between junction boxes and luminaires in places where is a possibility of mechanical damage.Never route cables flat packages or bundles.
Crossing flat wire between them should be avoided.If necessary, the insulation of wires crossing at this location increase three or four layers of rubber or PVC tape or pipe insulation.
Bending flat wires is performed by a method similar to open wire (Fig. 1)
Fig.1. Laying flat cables: a - correct parallel laying flat wire;b - the intersection of flat transacti
Hidden wires brought to the surface of the walls of overlap (for example, if there is a hidden area in passing near the walls of water pipes) through the insulating tubes, funnels, porcelain or plastic sleeves (Fig. 2).
Fig.2. Withdrawal flush to the surface: 1 - wire;2 - rubber tube;4 - funnel
covered cable in steel and plastic pipes
Such postings are carried out only when it is not recommended to use other methods of laying.Tubing are utilized to protect the wiring from mechanical damage and to protect from the external environment.If you intend only to protect against mechanical damage, the tightness of the pipeline is required.But if it is necessary to protect the wire from the external environment - the tightness required.
Choice of steel and plastic pipes for the laying of insulated wires APR, AR, APRV, ALMPs
| Cross section in mm2 || Water and gas, cond.passage., mm || Electro, outside.dia. * in thickness.wall, in mm || vinyl plastic, outside.dia., mm |
| number of wires in the pipe - 2 |
| 1,5 || 15 || 26 * 1,8 || 20 |
| 2,5 ||15 ||26 * 1,8|| 20 |
| 4 || 15 ||26 * 1,8|| 20 |
| 6 || 15 ||26 * 1,8|| 20 |
| 10 || 20 ||26 * 1,8|| 25 |
| 16 || 25 || 32 * 2 || 32 |
|25 || 32 || 32 * 2 || 40 |
| 35 || 32 || 47 * 2 || 40 |
| 50 || 40 || 47 *2 || 50 |
| 70 || 50 || 59 * 2 || 63 |
At the intersection with the heating pipes tube wiring distance should be in the light of not less than 50 mm, with parallel lining with them - 100 mm.
steel pipes must be laid so that they could not collect moisture and condensation.For water drainage pipes lay on the horizontal sections of the route, with some bias towards the box.
in steel and plastic pipes are insulated wires unprotected brand ALMPs PRTO, AR, PT et al.
minimum cross-section of conductors insulated wires laid in the tubes, up to 1.0 mm2 and 2.0 mm2 copper - for aluminumwires.
Wiring mounted in the pipes so that, if necessary, the wires can be removed from the pipe and replace others.Therefore, if the track has two pipeline bending angle, the distance between the boxes should not exceed 5 m, and on the straights - 10 m.
make connections or wires in the branch pipes is prohibited, they operate only in the boxes.
Perform wiring in steel pipes can be carried out in open, hidden and outer lining.Steel pipes used in exceptional cases, when the wiring is not permitted without the tube and you can not use non-metallic pipes.
The garden houses and buildings of steel pipes required for input devices and wirings in attics, basements and outdoor wirings.
pipes before installation cleaned of rust, dirt and burrs.To prevent the damaging effects of corrosion on the coating of the wires and cables - pipes laid by open, stained.Pipes laid before the concrete, from the outside not stain for better adhesion of the outer surface of the concrete.
If bent pipes, collapsing (ripple) on the corners is not allowed.Flex pipe at an angle of less than 90 ° is not recommended, since the complex configuration of pipelines and its largest extent is difficult to push the wire through the tube.Therefore, pipe bending radius are limited.When piping is hidden bend radius.It should be at least six pipe outer diameter, with a bending or laying open - at least four outer diameters.When laying pipes in the concrete bend radius should be not less than ten exterior pipe diameters.
distance between the fastening points is open steel pipes laid on the horizontal and vertical sections depends on the diameter of pipes laid.Pipes with diameter of 15-32 mm through securing 2.5-3.0 m, and the bending - in the region 150-200 mm from the angle of rotation.When they open piping secured to the supporting structure staples, clips, straps and clips.
pipe ends after cutting is cleaned of burrs, and to terminate counterbore bushings.
Posting in rendered monolithic pipes
Currently hidden wiring is usually performed in the rendered monolithic house-building factories in the plastic (vinyl plastic) pipes.Detail of such wiring is illustrated in Fig.4.
Fig.4. Posting in rendered monolithic pipes: 10 - Fittings;11 - partition;12 - a cover of the socket;13 - socket;14 - mortgage plastic cup for mounting the socket;15 - VCT, trumpet;16 - wiring;17 - a cover of the niche;18 - a niche;19 - Wire
Application rendered monolithic plastic tubes and boxes for wire connections and branches, as well as to set them in sockets, switches, etc.It allows you to:
- replace the wiring in the operation;
- to ensure the independence of the civil and electrical works;
- eliminate the punching operation and wet processes (sealing of fissures with wires) when installing wiring;
- significantly increase the electrical safety as vinyl plastic tube - a good extra insulation;
- to raise the level of industrialization of electrical work because labor-intensive core processes from the construction site is transferred to the plants;
- mounted wiring without disturbing the sound insulation of residential buildings.
When the wirings in a vinyl plastic pipes rendered monolithic wire damage during construction work is completely excluded.
They are increasingly used, especially widespread in the homes they get out of reinforced concrete.The electrical baseboard (Fig. 5d) has five channels.The top two placed wires Group mains in the bottom three - wire radio broadcasting, telephone and cable television.Wire telephone and radio are separated so that there is no mutual influence (interference).Posting in baseboards turnover.The channels in fixed wire clips that set by 500 - 700 mm.
A - setting nadplintusnoy outlet;b - turn and lift the wiring;to - door jamb framing;g - electrical baseboard;etc. - installation of electrical baseboards;1 - plinth, 2 - casing, 3 - base plinth, 4 - Case 5 - the wall, 6 - clean floor
Krepjat skirting boards in different ways: Pistol with a mounting piston gun;bonding;nailed to a wooden base floor made of panelboard parquet;metal straps that lay in the seam between the floor slab and wall panel during the assembly building to the curing solution;with the help of embedded devices;plugs;in the presence of wooden plugs directly with screws or nails.
permissible load on copper wires with rubber isolation
| cross section |
conductive wires, mm2
| current load A |
| Cables |
|two-wire single-core|| trёhzhilnye |
| when laying |
| air ||air|| in the ground ||air||in the ground|
| 15 ||23||19||33||19||27|
| 2,5 ||30||27||44||25||38|
| 4 ||41||38||55||35||49|
| 6 ||50||50||70||42||60|
| 10 ||80||70||105||55||90|
| standard cross-sectional area of wires, mm2 ||permissible continuous load current (A)|
| copper insulated wires ||Aluminum insulated wires||Bare wires outside|
| open |
three wires in the pipe
|open wiring||three wires in the pipe|| copper grade M ||aluminum grade A||steel stamp|
Electrical casing used for decorative door frame and wiring bend around the doorway.Electrical devices specifically for skirting postings: sockets, radios-rosette, hitless telephone and television sockets.These devices must be installed in standardized installation boxes.Currently installed on plinths nadplintusnye sockets.
The metal garages, sheds, greenhouses (in the individual residential sector) mount a conventional wiring to the supporting structures is difficult, and for this purpose may be used cable runs.She performed as a rule, the usual installation of aluminum wires with PVC, plastic or rubber insulation or special mechanical rope wires.Cable runs contain two main elements: a set of suspension cable tensioners and proper wiring with wires connecting hangers, connection (junction) box, fittings and launch protection devices.To end fixing steel cables used through bolts or anchors that are installed into holes punched in the wall and fasten the soldering on the outside, and to remove the nut is enclosed by a wide washer.To connect the cable with anchors at its ends do loop.If the cable is used as wire rope loops operate with the cable clamps 2 (Fig. 6) Cotes and 3, and in the case of the rolled wire - a steel ferrule 5 (assembly in advance and then welded rods) and the clamping and tensioning 6.sag regulate compression sleeve 7 installed with one or both ends of the cable.Furthermore fastening the ends depending on the weight and the mounted electrical fixtures mounted intermediate fastening to the ceiling of the cable as required, thereby decreasing the sag across the line and giving the necessary mechanical strength.At both ends of the cable end structures mounted with insulators.
Fig.6. Elements of cable runs
1 - rope;2 - cable clamps;3 - Cote;4 - wire;5 - holder;6 - a clip;7 - compression sleeve;8 - the final construct
at the location of fixtures mounted brackets (Fig. 7) and attach it to the luminaire.