To attach fixtures to the wires the electric network available sets of ears, which are installed at the entrance of the electrical circuit and the lamp should ensure Connecting a wire with aluminum conductor cross-section of 2.5 or 4 mm from the input and equipment wires with copper conductor cross-section 0.5 -1 mm2 - from the lamp circuit.These terminals connect aluminum and copper wires to each other.Commercially produced eleven sizes of cl
Fig.1. Hooks and studs for hanging lamps (chandeliers) and - a hook screwed into the wooden flooring;b - hook in the concrete slab;c, d - stud U626UHL4 and SHBPUHLZ;d - ceiling outlet RPUHLZ (all dimensions in mm)
Of these six four sizes have screw terminals (Fig. 2a, b, c), and two - screwless spring clips.Five sizes of sets of clamps are designed for mains voltage of 380 V and allow you to connect the wires with aluminum and copper conductor cross-section 0.5 ... 4.0 mm by using only screw terminals. 220 volt terminals are made with one, two and three slots.Clips with a single socket do not have holes for mounting to the panel lamp.Others may have fixing holes.Fig.2, and shows a set of clamps with three jacks and two holes for fixing in the luminaire.The housing 1 is made of plastic clips or press-refractory materials.Contact 2 has a screw nut, providing the necessary fixing of wire strands.
Fig.2 connections for fixtures: and - with screw clamp terminal, three jacks and two holes for mounting;b - with screwless spring terminal clamps and two sockets;in - with screwless spring terminal clamps and three jacks
End READ core is inserted into the screw clamp terminal in the inside-out terminal screws 2, which is then screwed. Figure 2a, b, c are given sets of ears with two and three pin sockets.On the side walls of the housing have holes 4 for live wires which are securely clamped flat springs.Eccentric unit 3 is designed to release the wire from the contact clip;it is also made of polycarbonate, which ensures increased electrical terminals set during operation.
WALL, ceiling lamps, ceiling lamps, TABLE LAMPS
Figure 3 and 2 to the body wall lamp cap is screwed onto the cartridge 1. 3 frosted or milky glass screwed on the thread in the housing.Such fixtures are common and bathrooms and other damp areas.
housing 7 with a spherical ceiling lamp shade 9 is bolted to a wooden wall socket 6. socket is attached to the ceiling with screws or dowels 4. The wires are introduced through the opening 5. Ceiling holder 10 is screwed to the body.Shade 8 fastened with three screws (two screws a little).The screws are located at angles of 120 ° and are screwed into the side of the housing.8 need to tighten the screws evenly and carefully, so as not to crush the lampshade.Sometimes the ceiling lights do not reinforce a wooden socket and three rollers, as shown in Fig.3b left.
Fig.3. Wall and ceiling lamps, ceiling lamps, table lamps
Ceiling (Fig. 44 B) has two cartridges.Holders screwed to the brackets 13 via nipples 15 and the bracket welded to the housing 12. The wires are introduced through the opening 14. Shade 16 is screwed with three screws 11.
the wall mount at the base of the lamp 17 (Fig. 44 g) in opening 18injected screw head 19 previously screwed into the wall (screw head reaches the wall thickness at the base of the lamp) and then pulled down the lamp.The lamp is suspended on the screw and does not fall, because the upper portion of the hole 18 has a screw head.
cartridge 22 is screwed to the housing 23 table lamp (Figure 44, d).Shade 20 is inserted loosely in the rim 21. The switch 24 is mounted in the lamp base.Please note: the cord of the lamp output through the grommet 25 with rounded edges, and before exiting the luminaire is fixed, for example, pre-roll of adhesive tape, it can not be pulled out.
cartridge 22 to the housing of a table lamp (Fig. 44, d) directly screwed: the external thread portion of the upper casing 23 corresponds to the internal thread in the head of the nipple chuck (Fig. 44, ie the top).But if and chuck 22, and 27 parts to which it is to be attached, the internal thread, it is necessary to establish a transitional piece 26. The transition parts are used in all cases where a direct connection is not possible.
fixtures with fluorescent lamps
Fig.4 is a wall lamp with a U-shaped fluorescent lamp.Fig.4, and the lens 2 is mounted on flanged base 3 and fixed screw 1 and a removable cover 4. Fig.4b removed the lens and the lamp can be clearly seen and chuck 12, which is inserted into a starter 11, the capacitor 9, Block 8 for connection to the network and a spring 6. The lamp holder is attached jumper underneath the lamp 14, and that in turn is screwed to the cartridge screw 15.Fig.4.5 shows four jacks 16 to turn the lamp and two sockets 17 for a starter.Fig.4, a lamp 13 is shown separately.Fig.4d shows 18 screws attaching the external wires.Internal wires are soldered to the petals 19. Figure.4, F shows the connection elements of the lamp.Network wires are introduced through the opening 7 and are connected to terminals (Fig. 4, e).
Fig.4. Wall lamp with a U-shaped fluorescent lamp
Lamp Base so squeezed between him and the wall wires are loose.Openings in the block are: 20 - input leads;21 - for a screwdriver;22 - for fastening to the base of the lamp.Fig.4, ie the right of the device shown contacts.The wires are clamped between the plates 25 and 26. Plates 26 have a notch and hole & lt;threaded screw 23. At the screws put on springy (cutting) 24. washers for fastening to the wall are two holes 5.
lamp for uniform or common localized illumination of premises of public and residential buildings is shown in Fig.5. To the base 1 with screws 2 screwed lens 3. Form 4 holes (Fig. 5a) makes it possible to install the lamp vertically and horizontally.The luminaire is installed cartridges 5, 14 starteroderzhatel starter 6, Block 7 with clips, ballast 9 (screws and screwed) and the capacitor 8. The lamp 10 is shown separately.
Fluorescent lamps are long and not quite the same.Because of this, the lamp may not fit or may fall if the distance between the cartridge does not correspond to its length.To correctly install the cartridges (5b), they are made longitudinal slots 12. Screws 13c washers are screwed into the holes 15 bars (ris.5.a).Upper cartridge directly mounted on a bracket that is welded to the base.Under the lower chuck planted curved bracket 16, on which the starteroderzhatel 14.
Fig.5. Fluorescent lamp general lighting
device cartridge shown in Fig.5.5.The hollow body 17 retracted: Lower - contact assembly, the front - a turning insert 19. In the relay node in block 18 of insulating material inserted into the contact spring 21, which is limited stroke abutments 20. The wires 22 (Fig. 5c) is clamped between the ends of the screws23 and the contact springs 21. Screws 24 are screwed into the plate;their position is fixed grooved pads 18.
lamp is inserted into the slot 25 (Fig. 5, a left side) and then rotated by 90 ° (Figure 5, in the right).At the same time connect the pins 26 with contact springs 21.
Finally, a little general information.
Conventional notation: LB - white lights;LHB - lamp cold white color: LTB - lamp warm-white color.For lighting systems that require correct color rendering, lamp rings available, LTBTS, MDC respectively natural (F), warm white (TB) and day (D) color.The numbers after the letters indicate the lamp power in watts.For example, LB-20 stands for: white fluorescent lamp power of 20 watts.Combustion Duration
fluorescent lamps significantly longer than the incandescent combustion (1000 hours) and depending on the type of a few thousand hours.Luminous flux after 70% of the mean burning is reduced to 70% of the average of the nominal flow.Most lamps are used for a long time at room temperature and at rated voltage.Overvoltage and undervoltage reduce service life, but to an increase in voltage fluorescent lamps are much less sensitive than incandescent bulbs.(Remember, incandescent behave quite differently: when the voltage is sharply reduced lifespan, while reducing stress - increases dramatically).
fluorescent lamps are included in the network, together with control gear - gear.Lifetime inductors and capacitors PRA about 10 years.
Sometimes luminaire starts to "act up."What to do?
Features of operation of such lamps is the presence of the auxiliary circuit switching devices - a starter and throttle.If the scheme does not light a lamp, you need to check whether your power supply, as well as individual elements of the circuit switching on the lamp.
Normal operation Lamp essentially depends on external factors - from the supply voltage and ambient temperature.With proper power and all the elements of the scheme included the lamp may still does not light up, if the ambient temperature is less than + 10 ° C and if the supply voltage fluctuation exceeds 6-7%.Ignition of the lamp is usually not immediately, but after a few positives starter.The total duration of the ignition should not exceed 15 seconds.If during this time the lamp does not light, there may be a fault, which can be both in the tube and in the individual elements of the connection type.
lamp does not light.The reasons may be a fault:
a) power - for an open or poor contact;
b) starter - heating circuit does not close the lamp electrodes;
c) Throttle - open throttle in the winding;
g) cartridges - lack of contact;
d) of the lamp - the lamp electrode breakage.
Check and remedy these faults are made in the following order:
a) check the voltage across the contacts of the lamp holder and starter;
b) to replace the lamp.If the new lamp is lit, the lamp has been replaced faulty.
When the glow lamp phosphor, causing occurrence of auxiliary discharge, there is only one end of the lamp.The lamp flashes, but does not ignite.The reasons for this fault may be in the wiring circuit in the cartridge, in the lamp output, which glow phosphor absent.
Remedy is carried out in the following order:
a) lamp rearranged so that the defective and normal glowing ends of her reversed.If this interchange will be no glow, this lamp is defective and should be replaced by a new;
b) if there is no lamp replacement, glow, check the circuit on and lamp holder, remove the closures, if necessary, replace the cartridge.
glow at the ends of the lamp there and persists for a long time, but the lamp does not ignite.The reason must be sought in the fault starter cartridge or wiring.If the starter is removed and the glow disappears, then the starter must be replaced.If and when there is no starter on the ends of the lamp will glow, check the wiring and remove the starter cartridge available in their circuit.
included at the ends of the lamp appears dim and fading orange glow lamp does not light, and after a while the glow disappears.Such a lamp has to be replaced because it is air.
If the lamp is lit normally, but in the early hours of burning there is a strong darkening of its ends, and after a while it ceases to light up, the defective throttle, becausestarting and running currents have values that do not meet the current-voltage characteristic.
To do this, check the value of start-up and operating currents.In some cases, the premature end of the lamp darkening may be caused by the poor quality of its cathodes.
If the lamp is lit normally, but the discharge is not uniformly fills the space between the electrodes, and in some areas in the form of a snake writhing, the defective throttle - the lamp current is too large.It is necessary to check the value of starting and operating the lamp current, and if they are within the limits specified in the current-voltage characteristic, the throttle must be replaced with a new one.If the current does not exceed the limits, in some cases, it may be a problem with the lamp itself - it is not well treated cathodes.The lamp several times to extinguish and light, turn it into chucks around its axis by 120 ° and once again ignite and extinguish.If after this discharge does not fill the entire space between the electrodes, the lamp must be replaced.
If the lamp periodically lights up and goes out, then the faulty lamp and starter.The lamp is defective becausethe voltage drop across the lamp during its combustion ignition voltage exceeds the discharge in the starter.It is necessary to check the voltage drop in the lamp.If it exceeds the values specified in the table, this lamp should be replaced with a new one.If ignition voltage discharge in the starter below the minimum value, then the starter is defective.
lamp is lit normally, but is very dim, the light flux emitted by the lamp, is not sufficient.This is because the throttle does not provide proper operation of the lamp.If the operating current of the lamp is less than the minimum allowable value specified in the table, you should change the throttle.If the lamp current does not exceed the lower limit, it means that the lamp must be replaced because it contains very little mercury.
|rated lamp power in watts||voltage lamps in||Operating current in the lamp and||inrush current in the lamp and|
|40||115 110 125||0,41||039||0,44||0,57||0,65|
Table 11 Current-voltage characteristics of throttles
When you turn on the installation fuse spiral lamp, it must be replaced by a choke, asin his winding partially or completely broken insulation.
If any failure in installing fluorescent lighting installation must be immediately disabled.The cause of the fault must be clarified and resolved, since the fault of one element can cause damage to others.
Proper lighting APARTMENTS
Creating the right lighting provides optimal conditions for work and leisure, harmoniously combined in a single unit all elements of the interior - a very important task.