outer wires wiring located or protrude so that they were unavailable touch.Wire, la
Fig.1.Inputs from the air line:
1. - line wire;2. - Twist;3. - funnel;4 - the plug;5. - rubber tube;6. - an offshoot of the line wires;7. - Pipe counter;and - to enter through the wall of the building;b.- Entering through the roof (using Pipe counter) .
When the suspension wires on poles around the buildings to the distance from the wire balconies and windows must be at least 1.5 m.
Insulated wire is allowed to lay at a height of not less than 2.5 m from the ground.Insulators strengthen on hooks embedded in the slot with the help of cement mortar.Detours drain pipes, gas communications performed in the semi-tubes with a funnel at the ends.Isolation of such transactions shall be calculated on the sunlight and precipitation.
branches from overhead lines to the inputs should be performed at home with bare wires.Wiring diagram is shown in Fig.2. In the performance of their insulated cables insulation rapidly destroyed in the air intake of the building can not perform single-wire aluminum wire (bare and insulated), since it has a low mechanical strength.The wire 6 (Fig. 1) is conveyed in a semi-solid tube terminating with a funnel 5 3 outside and inside the sleeve 4.
Fig.2. Connection to a line 380 / 220V
insulated wire connected to the input line conductor 2. Hole 7 twisting wire input can be shared, but lay them in separate tubes.The distance of the lower suspension point line conductors from the ground shall not be less than 2.75 m, and the distance between the wires and the projecting parts of the building must be at least 20 cm. Insertion of up to 25 meters long cable section is performed not less than the M4 or A10, while flying more than20 m cross-section must be at least M6;A16.The opening of the funnel is filled with insulating mass.Insertion can be performed in the home through the roof in the form of steel tubes in the bracket.The distance from the wire to the roof should not be less than 2 m. The steel pipe must be connected to the grounded neutral conductor.
If the power supply line is located on the opposite side of the street, in order to maintain the overall height of the wires should be installed additional support (Fig. 3).In this case, the entries in the lower house can be done with this additional support Descent Adjacent wires on the support can be performed on insulators or, better yet, in a steel pipe insulated wire.
This support is set in a pre-dug pit.At the bottom of the pit is placed a large stone.The support is lowered by stages, and on the opposite side of the pit enclose the board.After installation in the pit vertical supports shall be verified and plumb filled with layered soil rammer.Hooks and insulators fixed on a support before its installation.Pin insulators secured to the ends of the hooks with special caps or tow impregnated with minium, mixed with linseed oil.
In our example (Fig. 3) shows the voltage addl support this in the case of supply to the house of the three-phase 380 V and lighting lines.Isolators are designed for one phase conductor, insulator 2 - for the neutral conductor and
Fig.3. Support low voltage:
1 - hooks of insulators for phase conductors;2 hook zero
wire;3 - wire hook for street lighting
insulator 3 for wire outdoor lighting.Deskside support is connected to the main power line running down the street, using wires with a cross section corresponding to the cross section of the wires of the main line.Roll out the wire poles or ropes to raise support and placed on a hook or special mounting clips.Then one end of the wire is fixed on the support and pull Adjacent to support the main power line.Tensioned wires using slugs, or pulley, sag is adjusted in accordance with the special assembly tables, depending on the air temperature.All work on the connection to the main power line is necessary to perform a de-energized and in agreement with the owner of the line.
During the construction of a country house (cottage) it may be that your land is located away from power lines.In this case, the power house may need to install several additional supports, and maybe build power lines.Digging pits manually for a large number of supports - the process is fairly labor intensive.It is best to apply in this case the drilling crane systems, which are available at any mechanized unit, engaged in the construction of power lines or RESS.With such a setup is greatly simplified installation support, asit can drill a hole in the ground to a predetermined depth and set bearing mechanized way.Backfill the sinuses between the support and the walls of the holes must be done with gravel, becauseloosely compacted soil can create a further prerequisite for the tilt support.
Ris.№ 4 Fixing elements input wiring in the building: And - for the wooden walls;b - for brick walls;in - to enter through the roof;1 - outlets;2 - hook;3 - eyeliner;4 - insulator;5 - input hopper;6-tube;7- bracket corners;8- solution;9 - Pipe counter;10 bracket (triangles);11 - Stretching;12 - clamp
When the support is installed, it is necessary to take care of safely secured structural elements input wiring in the building.Fig.Figure 4 shows how to carry out commissioning of wood, brick building or stretch the wire through the roof with the help of Pipe counter.
tubal holders to use the water and gas pipes, the inner diameter of the conditions of the mechanical strength must be at least 20 mm when entering the two wires, and at least 32 mm - four.Pipe counter bent upper end 180 ", so that it could not get wet. For tube bending under the yoke with two welded pins for mounting bushings. For Pipe counter to traverse a 20 mm diameter using the steel area 500 mm long section of 45x45x5. On welded Pipe counter boltfor zeroing (zero conductor connection with a metal pipe), which for protection against corrosion smeared with petroleum jelly. The sharp edges of the pipe with a file handle, to avoid damaging them while tightening the wire insulation. Closer to bend welded ring (nut), which fix the wire quickdrawto compensate for the tensile force of the wire branches overhead line. The inner surface of the pipe paint.
connection from underground cables
Electrical washing can be done at home, and cabling, which is laid in the ground at a depth of 800 mm. The cable is laid on the pre-prepared bed of sand with a layer thickness of 80-100 mm.After laying the cable, he poured a layer of sand on top of the bricks hiding and to protect it from mechanical damage.The cable should have a length of 1% more than estimated.Compounds and terminating in cable couplings operate (Fig. 5).After careful cutting speed cable cores (Fig. 6), and their bent
Fig.5. Installation of cable coupling: 1 - cable weight;2 - the lower half-coupling;3 - the top half-coupling;4 - seals;5 - porcelain tower;6 - screw caps;7 - a cover;8 - a nut tightening bolts;9- tightening bolts;10 - jute cover.11 - armor;12 - Lead (aluminum) shell;13 - belt paper insulation;14 - core
to reduce a porcelain plate spacers 5 (Fig. 5).The wires are connected with sleeves or propaykoy molding hydraulic press.After that, put the clutch and pour it through a hole bitumen cable weight.
during the transition from air to the clutch cable line used mast type. They set outdoors.In recent years, also used dry cable terminations instead of coupling with filling.When dry sealing of cable conductor separated isolate cotton tape or ribbon varnished cloth.Each layer of the tape is coated with insulating varnish.At the core is then put on a lead glove, which is tightly connected to the cable sheath.Place the cable is connected to the power supply is coordinated with the energy supply company.In support cables in the upper part is open on the brackets, and starting from a height of not less than 1.5 m from the ground level - in a pipe at a depth of 0.7 m. Cable outlet on the outer wall of the building is carried out in the pipe, which brackets attached to the wall of the building.
Branches to the building, regardless of their type are considered part of the power line and served by the owner.When the cable entry on service lines are the owner of the cable and its terminal connections.And when the air entering the branch is considered to insulators on the wall of a building or a pipe bracket.Wires and cables placed after the insulators are considered the property of the owner of the house and served them.
Fig.6. Cutting paper cables: 1 - the imposition of bandage;2 - Removal of jute cover;3 - nadrezka armor;4 removal of armor;5 Remove the cable yarn;6, 7 circular and longitudinal cuts shell;8 Remove the strips;9 Remove the shell;10 - Remove the aluminum sheath
outdoor lighting occupies a separate place in the electrical wiring of the house.As a rule, it is general in nature and serves for easy passage in the night and in the evening or perform work not related to the large eyestrain.Along with this, it may be local in nature and for performing certain types of work.For local coverage, if it is temporary in nature, it is appropriate to provide for portable lamps.This should take care of the electrical safety.Posting portable lamp must have an adequate margin of isolation, for its placement is necessary to provide special suspension to avoid interference when moving.
Lamps must be protected from mechanical damage (metal ceiling, grid, etc. (Fig. 7). Place for connection (female) is best equipped for the outdoors or her exit from the premises must be provided specific passages in the wall.Otherwise you risk damaging the insulation of the conductors of the cable and close the door. Wires and cables, portable lamps should be flexible, not afraid of excesses. The socket must be protected from rain.
Besides these functions, yard lighting can play a significant role in the aesthetic and design ofIt will largely depend on the overall look of your.
great importance to the selection of outdoor lighting impose conditions for its operation. Precipitation, air temperature changes, the impact of solar radiation require a careful approach in the selection of cables and wires, lighting and switching equipment and a design lighting.
Planning can make adjustments to the final decision.In some cases, only one lamp, located on the wall of the house, porch or standing transmission tower (Fig. 8). But often required to illuminate a fairly long approach to the house, the stairs leading to the garden or the garden, passes to the auxiliary premises, etc.Of the many options you have to find the right one that will not only illuminate the domestic platforms, but also to decorate, lighting its positives and hide flaws.A significant role is, this case will play appearance of lamps.
Fig.8. Options for mounting lights on poles
Lighting court can do in the embodiment of cable runs.Methods of laying it in detail in the relevant section of this book.Securing the rope can be carried to the walls of the house yard buildings or specially established for this purpose supports.Lighting fixtures (lights, junction boxes, etc.) should be performed, which protects the terminal connections from atmospheric precipitation.The greatest effect can give ground lights, which will be the highlight of the yard in the interior.Possibility yard lighting set, ranging from severe to the most modern forms of light.
decisive role will be played by two factors: your imagination and budget.Reliability ground lighting provides underground cabling and installation of junction boxes in niche vertical constructions racks under the lights.Such niche should be closed lids with screw fixation.
For greater convenience and safer approach to the house at night, especially if there is a domestic ladder diagram appropriate to provide on and off light from two locations.A switch, for example, set near the house, and the other near the construction yard or entrance gate.
Option of Court properly installed switch is shown in Fig.9.
special lights create a cozy, made their own hands.It is best to do them out of strips of sheet copper, brass, nickel silver.There are three design options of yard lights.
1. lantern type "bra" (Fig. 10).First you have to pick up all the glass cover, which will be the basis for the formation of a circular structure of copper (brass, nickel silver) bands.The width of the strips should be in the range of 50-80 mm.
bend details from a strip two pliers on the image in full size.Can help and manual vice.
Framing ceiling connect small studs.Lower ring detachable, fasten it with a small cog (to stick to the ceiling fittings).
Fig.9. A properly installed outdoor switch
If no rivets, making a simple device for their production (Fig. 10b).It consists of two identical steel segment, which is clamped in a vise and drill holes in them.Drill holes that match the diameter of the wire from which to rivet.Top in countersink holes made for the formation of the rivet head.
halves device is compressed, for example, a clamp.The wire is inserted into the hole and bite se so that remained the top segment of length 1.5 times the diameter of the wire.Hammer blows of the hammer head of each rivet is formed.
Bra fixed to the wall with the figure bracket.Bracket and method of attachment to the wall shown in Fig.10 in.
chain suspension to an arm sconces are made of copper (brass or German silver) wire with a diameter of about 1 mm.The chain is better to make a double (each unit - two ringlet).Rings receive so.In the grip of two fixed beech boards and stretch a wire between them (Fig. 10, d).From the rod diameter of the hole of the future ringlet make knob.At the end of its drill hole
equal to the thickness of the wire.
Fig.10. Lantern of the "bra»
inserting the end of the wire into the hole knob, it is wound in a tight spring.Then remove from the knob and narrow scissors for iron divided into rings.
2. Lamp cylindrical type "hexagon & gt; (Fig. 11).