development of new technologies for the use of, alternative energy sources being a long time, but so far there is no certainty that scientists have come up with a miracle remedy that will save humanity from hunger energy.
What if we start to act on the principle of "self-help"?In many countries, wind turbines, solar collectors, heat pumps, micro hydropower plants have become the usual attributes of life.Maybe follow the example of foreign homeowners and build a small "communal paradise" on your own site?Is it possible that without support from the state?Or is worth to learn to save traditional energy?
the Middle East, people are literally basking in the sun.But over the past decade, the light here was used in a much more mercantilist purposes.In Israel, all the buildings under construction are installed solar collectors.In this country, as well as the south of Europe, in Spain, 80% of the water is heated by solar energy.
Another example - Denmark (Northern Europe), where the sunlight i
Germany (the country is among the leaders in alternative energy), the state buys from private owners surplus solar electricity and sells them at competitive prices to other customers.This creates an additional incentive for the installation of solar power plants.
What do we?If you look at the map of the distribution of sunlight, more than half of the country is abroad feasibility of using solar panels.That is, install them if you wish, you can, but the efficiency is much lower than in southern latitudes.
consider one of the suggestions of the domestic market: 16 panels of 160 watts can be year-round to provide a small cottage in central Russia energy.This power is sufficient to operate household appliances, power tools, refrigerators and energy-saving lamps.Heating and electric have to "feed" from other sources.Package including battery and everything necessary for their work (charge controller, batteries, inverter), and fasteners and cabinets for equipment, will cost about 22.5 thousand dollars.
issue can be solved cheaply - 8 thousand dollars.But this half option: solar panels will work interchangeably with oil-fired unit.It turns out not really an alternative source of energy.
Craftsmen learned to their own hands to create reservoirs of polymers.In central Russia "vodogreyki" more or less productive work from May to September.Cottagers and gardeners are no longer needed.But for the full energy supply of home-made cottage collectors is not sufficient.
So energy fluorescent lights we use only in conjunction with another source of energy and if you live far away from civilization in the belief that the utility grid in the foreseeable future to your site will not reach.
Wind, wind, thou mighty!
Wind domesticated long ago.6,000 years ago the ancient Egyptians traveled the Nile under the fluttering sails.Long before our era the people of the Middle East for milled grain windmill.
wind stations now widely used in the United States, India, China and, of course, in Europe: Germany, Spain and Denmark.For example, the birthplace of Hans Christian Andersen 20% of the generated energy accounts for wind turbines.In Western countries seek to reduce the cost of energy for the population.Often, private wind turbines are connected to a single network, which receives all The accumulated energy.Then processed, it is sent back to the owners of wind turbines, which pay for the difference between the received and kilowatt.
Again the question: what we?With winds in Russia fared better than sunlight.Most parts of the country they are blowing at a speed of 3.5 to 6 meters per second.This is the minimum necessary for wind turbines.In coastal areas - the north, the Far East, the Krasnodar Territory - the wind is much stronger.Wind turbines are usually designed for the wind speed of 8 meters per second.This speed is called the nominal, it is based on settlements.When a lower speed wind turbine will work too, but not as effective.
Prices for wind turbines are comparable with the prices of solar panels.Unless, of course, we are talking about a powerful station for a complete power supply of the building.
sun and wind unevenly please planet with your presence, so that the energy from these sources is not possible for all regions.As for the heat of subsoil, it can be used anywhere in the world.The fact is that even in the north of the temperature underground is always positive.The case for small - "pump" heat from the depths of the planet.
You can do this by using the heat pump.Under ground pipeline falls - vertically (into the well) or horizontally (around the perimeter).Heat can also take from a nearby pond, technically it is a little bit easier.At first glance, the temperature of the soil, which in winter is from 5 to 8 ° C, enough to heat a house.However, in the heat pump based on the principle of raising the temperature by evaporation.Thus, the heating system and hot water coolant flows sufficiently heated.
Strictly speaking, the warmth of the earth - not really an alternative source of heat, as for the operation of the pump requires electricity.But it can also be obtained from vospolnimo sources, especially that of the pump requires no electricity so much?Moreover, the yield of thermal energy in comparison with consumed electric average of five to one.
In Sweden, such facilities are used for more than 30 years.They are used in many German and North American cities.We have a heat pump - a luxury.To use it to heat a house of 200 square meters.m will have to pay about 40 thousand dollars.Plus underfloor heating.Manufacturers recommend using it pumps them to the most efficient use of the heat, because the coolant temperature is too low for the radiators.Naturally, the payback time is measured in decades.
Micro Hydro: rebirth
Rivers and streams in our country are vast.It would seem that for small hydropower nature itself has created the best conditions.Up to 60-ies in the USSR actively used water wealth: employed thousands of micro hydro.But then we began to solve the issue of energy supply globally - the construction of large power plants.Low energy sunk into oblivion.
Construction of micro hydro compared to other renewable energy accessible to private traders.Setting power 10-15 kW is about 15 thousand dollars.The resulting energy can provide a few houses.Thus, for every homeowner initial costs may not be as impressive.But there is one "but": in the immediate vicinity of the cottage should be a river, preferably with a strong current or a drop of the water level of several meters.
What to do?
Despite the advantages of renewable energy (especially safety for the environment and the consumer, and autonomy), their use in our country for a long time will not be massive.The reasons are objective:
- natural conditions not everywhere allow efficient use of renewable energy sources.
- for privateers prices for the equipment and its installation, as a rule, are too high.
- No popular government program aimed at developing renewable energy sources.
Thus, alternative sources we use only when there is no other way to get energy.Otherwise, electricity and heat got to us the traditional way - getting more expensive and environmentally unfriendly.
one way out: to learn how to conserve energy.Then our costs will decline it.Ecology also benefit: the less energy we consume, the less is produced, while in the atmosphere comes less harmful substances.
Where to start?First of all - make sure to not leave our homes warm through the windows, doors, walls, roofs.Windows and doors should be of high quality, manufactured using modern technologies.As for the other places of possible heat loss - the walls, roof, basement, floors, there is a need insulation.Thermal insulation - an integral part of the building, friendly nature.Especially since it also reduces the cost of heating and air conditioning at home.For example, in complex residential building insulation ROCKWOOL stone wool can reduce the cost of heating it in half.
ability to retain heat in the building - not the only requirement for quality insulation.Practical European citizens in the construction of energy efficient buildings prefer to use non-combustible, durable and environmentally friendly stone wool.
future - renewable sources of energy.It so happened that in the West it comes before us.But do not rush things.When the technology for production of energy from alternative sources reached such a level that they can be actually used in the Russian climatic conditions, we will certainly also stand on the path of progress.In anticipation of this moment, we are obliged to take measures to save the traditional energy that gets us on credit from future generations to the risk to the environment.But in general, no matter what method was derived energy, it is important to efficiently use it in their homes, especially in Russia today there are all possibilities for improving energy efficiency in buildings.