Many believe that low-cost home heating is possible only on the main gas.But what if it is not, and engagement is not planned?
Today, when energy prices are soaring up, and the cost of connection to the pipe «blue fuel» unreasonably high, an increasing number of homeowners turn their sights to alternative energy sources.
Based on expert knowledge and experience of participants forumhouse.ru we will tell you how to use the wind, the sun and the warmth of the earth can illuminate and warm the country house.
It can be called a wind generator.People have long been using wind power as an energy source.
come a long way, familiar to all windmills in our time become a modern wind turbines are able to generate electricity.
So what principle operates wind turbine?
It's pretty simple.The flow of wind turns the blades of the wind wheel, thereby causing the rotating shaft of the electric generator.
generator in turn generates electricity.
It should be remembered that the generator prod
Among private houses the most widely used wind turbines power up to 10 kW.As for design, the known three main types of wind turbines:
- Malolopastnye.Most often there are three lobes.They are characterized by high efficiency and simplicity of design.Among the shortcomings should be noted that due to the small area of the blades, the initial starting of the engine requires a wind speed of at least 5-5 m / s.Users also noted the high level of noise.
- multiblade.On the wind wheel is mounted from 18 to 24 curved blades.Start working at a wind speed of 2-4 m / s.Low noise level, but lower efficiency than malolopastnye wind turbines.Among the shortcomings should be noted complexity and design arises when the gyroscopic effect.
- Rotary wind turbines - are vertically arranged blades that do not move in a straight line and a circle.Of the merits, it should be noted easy starting, stable operation with constant winds, low noise.A significant drawback of such a construction of a wind turbine low efficiency, not more than 18%.
So how to use the wind power plant in our environment?
interesting personal experiences party forumhouse.ru Alexander Kapustin (nick Offline Experienced 1406 )
- Display the wind turbine should be at the site, where the winds there as little as possible interference.Wind energy - a cubic function of wind speed.This means that a minor change of wind speed causing substantial change in the output power.For security reasons, it is desirable to put a windmill away from residential buildings.As for the height of the mast - set as high as possible.
In conditions of Moscow region can be recommended mast height of not less than 15 meters.But when calculating the alternative energy system at home, you first need to figure out how much energy is required from the system.It will have to determine the peak instantaneous power, as well as two values to calculate the expected daily energy consumption - its maximum and average values.
should be remembered that in our climatic conditions, wind turbines can operate at full capacity of about 20-30% of the days in a year, so the wind generator should be considered as a backup system for electricity generation to power household appliances.
How to use the sun's energy?The first thing that comes to mind - a solar battery.
Nowadays no one is surprised solar cells placed on the roof of the cottage.
But it goes in our material is not about them, and about the device capable of converting solar energy into heat suitable for heating or hot water at home.
So what is a solar collector?Seek clarification from the Deputy Technical Director «Akvabur» Eugene Kasatkin.
- based solar system or, more simply, the solar collector the principle of the production of heat from solar radiation and the further transfer of the stored energy in hot water or heating.
There are two types of solar collectors:
- Solar collector.Removing the potential in this system produced by vacuum tubes.Vacuum tube - a flask with double glass with air pumped out of it.From the interior of the bulb is coated with a reflective material, which in this case admits solar radiation, but does not let out.And in the inner parts of the system are at the core of the tube, which houses the coolant.Vacuum layer allows to save about 95% of captured heat.
- flat solar collectors.Removing the potential in this system it is based on the absorption of solar radiation absorbing plate, after which the energy accumulated in the form of heat is transferred to a liquid carrier.The reverse side of the solar collector is covered with insulation.
So which system to choose, taking into account the work in our environment?
According to the head of the development department of the company direction «Viessmann» Michael Murashko:
- in cloudy weather, smog and the scattered radiation is most effective work vacuum tube collectors.A flat solar collectors are more optimal for use in areas with high solar insolation.
- In winter and in northern areas of the solar collector can be used as an additional system, connected to the heating system or hot water.But we get the best results in the summer, when the system is at its correct mounting and installation, can fully satisfy your need for hot water, without the use of indirect systems of water heating.
installation of solar collectors will allow you to get almost free heat.If the system needs a forced circulation of coolant, the electricity required to operate a pump.And on a sunny day, solar can heat water to 50-70 C.
As the law of conservation of energy: "Energy can not come out of nothing and can not just disappear, it can only move from oneform to another. "
in the ground, air and water contains large amounts of low-grade thermal energy which can be used to heat your home.It remains only to collect the heat energy dissipated and "run" it into the district heating system of the house.To do this, use a special device - the heat pump.
But what is this device?
Explains director «SagaTherm » Alexander Sagalovich:
- Heat pump - a refrigeration mashina.V ordinary conditions thermal energy is transferred from a warmer body to a less heated.The heat pump can take heat from a less heated body and transfer it to a warmer, heating it even stronger.
heat pump is able to select the thermal energy from the following sources - air, water and land.In our conditions, the most expedient to build a heat pump system that is based on the selection of the heat of the earth and water.
For pumping 4 kW of heat energy we need about 1 kW of power.But electricity, too, will not just disappear, it will turn into heat energy, asduring operation of the compressor is also heated.Total - spending 1 kW of electricity, we get 5 kW of heat.
But what benefits gives us the installation of the heat pump?
- benefit from the use of heat pumps is best demonstrated by the following table.
So now we know how a heat pump, but what are the types of systems?
choice of design will depend on the availability in your area of vacant space or reservoir.
- vertical system.It is used if the area has no place to lay the loop pipes freezing in the winter or no reservoirs.For mounting the heat pump are drilled from 3 to 5 holes, a depth of 50 to 150 meters.
- horizontal system.It is considered less costly than the vertical system, becauseIt eliminates the need for expensive drilling of boreholes.Circuit pipes laid in shallow water, usually about 1.5 meters, but it requires a fairly decent area of the site.
- water system.If near the site, no more than 100 meters, there is an ice-free in winter pond, the laying of pipes in the circuit it will be the most sensible choice.
Features of operation of heat pumps
Like any engineering system, heating and hot water-based heat pump requires a thoughtful approach.
- vertical and horizontal arrangement of ground heat exchangers are equally effective.Horizontal heat exchanger takes up space, but much cheaper than the vertical.
well drilling will cost more, but you can save space on the site.
For many it is the only solution, becausesite does not allow to place a horizontal heat exchanger.
At arrangement of horizontal ground heat exchangers need about 5 acres of land for every 10 kW of power.When completed, the land can be used without restrictions, the only thing it will not be able to build capital structures.One way to use heat pumps as a heating circuit, can be installation of water warm floor.
Inverter - as part of the alternative energy sources
As mentioned above, worked out alternative energy sources electricity stored in batteries.But what to do with this energy, because the batteries give out a constant current, unsuitable for the connection of household appliances?Help comes converter - inverter.With this device a direct current is converted into alternating.
On peculiarities of using inverters to create a self-contained and uninterrupted power supplies, says chief engineer «Sibcontact» Sergei Leskov :
- Inverters are integrated into various systems for the production of alternative energy containing battery, thus ensuring allhome electricity with a voltage of 220V and a frequency of 50 Hz.Inverters with pure sine wave output voltage are a mandatory part of the installation autonomous power, as it can be connected to any, even the most sensitive equipment.
When creating stand-alone systems and uninterruptible power inverters have a number of advantages compared with diesel and petrol generators:
- work offline and do not require the presence of a person;
- The idling consumes a minimum of power;
- not require special ventilation facilities;
- not require insulation of the room.
Thus, the choice of an efficient alternative energy source for a country house - is a comprehensive approach to address the many problems that require knowledge and experience.
Learn more about alternative energy you can branch from the corresponding forum.In this topic disclosed the issue of using a wind turbine.The use of heat pumps is discussed here .After reading this video you will see how the geothermal heat pump provides the house in the absence of mains gas.In this section Forum conducted discussions inverters.