I believe that readers forumhouse.ru agree with the statement that life in a modern house is unthinkable without the use of electricity in it.After all, in addition to power all appliances, due to electricity it works most of the engineering systems of your home.That is why the question of input electricity into the house requires a thoughtful and responsible approach, and any mistake at this stage could eventually lead to additional material costs.
So, based on the experience of participants and the comments of experts forumhouse.ru we will tell you:
- The fact that it is first necessary to do before entering the electricity in the house;
- about how the method used to enter the electricity in the house;
- On peculiarities of installation of electricity cables entering the house.
After the owner of the suburban housing gets hands on technical conditions for connection to the power supply network, before it gets big question.How to start putting electricity in the house?
For this process of connectin
1. decisions of administrative and legal issues
seek clarification from the Director of Normogrand Mikhail Gromov :
- To organize power house first need to do a project.If the landlord does not want to bear the costs of the design, then sooner or later he will face problems of an administrative nature or that the most dangerous problems of fire and electrical safety of its installation.
important to remember that:
- Any electrical installation must be coordinated at the local Energonadzor, electricity or a management company operates the local electricity networks;
- To obtain permission to join the power required pre-project development, and then the project itself;
- incorrect connection to the power grid homeowners can get penalties.
project power home - a technical documentation, which contains all the information regarding the location of wiring, electrical equipment and lighting in the home, as well as the characteristics of the materials used, the circuit switchboards plans wiring cable routing and placement of electrical load specificationof materials and equipment.
Specifications (TU) - a document requiring the owner of the house to complete the project, agree on it in all instances specified in the specification, perform a number of other - needed, according to the organization issuing the specifications, the technical operations of the construction of an administrative nature.Performing TU entitles you to Permissions interconnection capacity for the need to allocate power of homeowners.In addition, this document includes a list of all technical specifications of electrical work and power connections.
2. calculates the required cable cross-section of the opening
But what if the project for one reason or another not?How to enter the electricity in the house?In this case - the owner of the house must first calculate the expected load of all electrical work.
- should detail all electrical power to rewrite that will run on the network, including light bulbs, and the expected loads, you will be connected to the electrical outlet.Particular attention should be paid to the special loads - are motors and pumps.Since they have a future launcher tokv it, too, must be taken into account.
So now we have a total capacity of around the house, including all anticipated loads.After that, it is necessary that the total capacity multiplied by a factor of demand, which is for the convenience of calculation, and in case if the homeowner forgets to take into account any load can be equated to the unit.
Then, using the table « permissible continuous current cables» , we find the currents that can withstand the cable or wire.We need current, we get simply by dividing the total power at mains voltage 220V.For networks need to divide the 380V power at 380V and the square root of 3.
Now that we know the current that goes on lead-in cable.
So, after we have learned the load current can go to the selection of the cable to be used for connecting to the grid.But first, you must decide on the way to enter the electricity to the house.
3. How is putting electricity in the house?
There are three ways to connect your home to the power line:
- Cable entry through the air;
- Cable entry under the ground;
- wires through the air.
Each of these three methods has its own advantages and disadvantages.According to the director of the company "house engineering systems" Anatoly Gurin:
- Electric entering the air is considered the easiest and least expensive way to connect your home to energy Ossetia.Of the minuses can be noted that the cable stretched in the air can spoil the aesthetics of the site or at home.
By a definite plus underground input, con To the house include increased The security cable breakage, as well as its great fire resistance.
interesting to view user forumhouse.ru Paul Orlov (nick Offline Smart2305 ):
- It's best to hold the cable underground.However, the cable must be enclosed in an armored shell.
The main drawback of this method lies in the fact that underground cabling costs significantly more expensive than the air entering the cable.
4. Cable Selection for input of electricity into the house
In this part of our material we will consider the recommendations from the representatives of Kolchugino "Electrocable" chief information officer Natalia Pfanenshtil and engineer Elena Bragina .
So, what you first need to know the developer, the choice to enter the electricity cable in the house?
- First we need to imagine what the cable and how it differs from the wire.Since each of these products has its own area of application, it is not necessary to experiment on themselves and their loved ones.If there is a possibility of frequent flooding and the possibility that the cable will carry a lot of time in the water, in this case, it is better to use specially designed for such conditions the product - cable with silanolnosshitogo polyethylene insulation.
Wire - it is one or more conductors twisted together, each of which has its own isolation.Wires often have a common protective cover that serves to protect against various adverse external factors.Such as: - high humidity, chemically active medium, mechanical damage, and so on.. These wires are called protected.For example, PVA PuVV.
cable to - the name of one or more conductors enclosed in a protective sheath.The cable typically includes one, and often several conductors, each of which has its own insulation, moreover, the wires are placed in a common sheath.The cable can have a variety of additional structural elements: screen, armor and so on.
But what kind of cable to be used for laying the line in the air and under the ground?
Natalia Pfanenshtil :
- When you enter the house electricity in the air is better to use a wire grade SIP.Since the insulation of the wire is made of light-stabilized cross-linked polyethylene, the type of wire has high resistance to UV radiation, which is very important especially when operating outdoors.
When laying lines in the ground must use armored power cables, for example, VBShv.Armor in the construction of the cable has a protective function against mechanical damage.
But we must note that the cable sheath is made of PVC plastic that is not resistant to UV light, which means that the cable at the exit to the surface must also be protected.
SIP - is self-supporting insulated wire.
Natalia Pfanenshtil :
- When selecting cable, you should pay attention to the following characteristics:
- regulatory framework: in particular, the cable wiring brand VVGng ( A) -LS manufactured according to technical specificationswhich necessarily must comply with state standards.Such data can be found on the label for products, certificates, etc .;
- product certificates.Cables increased fire safety -ng ng (A) -LS etc.subject to mandatory certification, including the system of fire safety;
- cable construction - for example, a power cable made according to the standard must have a round shape and filling;
- Marking cable - the cable must necessarily contain the following inscription: Brand cable code or name of the manufacturer and the year of its release.
- Reputation producer.
5. Mounting and cable entry into the house
One of the key requirements for cable entry into the house are the following factors - lead-in cable transits should not be inside the house.Introductory shield is necessary to put close to the cable entry into the house.The very same input should be done in a metal sleeve, it is necessary etc. osverlit hole in the wall, insert the tube, and is already inside the pipe to hold the cable.
After cabling, all the free space in the tube remaining after cabling should score easily punched with cement mortar.Usually used for this purpose tow, soaked in the slurry.
- If the cable comes in the ground, then mount it on the house of course is not necessary, since it takes place in the basement.
depth of the trench for laying the cable in the ground should be at least 0.7 m.
If you use a cable, not self-supporting wire, the suspend him without cable forbidden!
cable to the house wall mounted overhead brackets.
important to remember that the part of the cable that goes from the ground and goes on a pole, or wall of the house must always be protected from mechanical damage.For this purpose, it is best to use a metal pipe length 2 m.
If the suspension cable is a cable, the cable for attachment to the wall should be installed eyebolt.It is important to remember that the cable over the entire length of the cable and the transition from the cable to the wall, as well as when entering into the house should have appreciable slack.Before entering into the hole in the wall of the cable must loop below the hole.This is to ensure that rain water does not leak through the cable into the house.The very same cable should not be tightened.Since there are temperature fluctuations - the coefficients of expansions and contractions in the cable and the cable is different.Therefore, when attaching the cable to the cable it should have a free lift on the rope.
If the input cable is carried out, then it is switched directly to the introduction automatic switch, or in a water shield.If the input is done the bare wire or an insulated wire SIP, it is necessary to make switching to cable, SIPA is also necessary to use a special fixture.For bare wire used junction squeezing, popularly referred to as "nuts."
Learn more about how to enter the electricity users can forumhouse.ru of this branch of our forum.From threads our forumchanin can learn how to properly carry out settlement of electricity to a new home.There obsuzhdaetsyaelektrifikatsiya country house.And watching this video , you can listen to expert advice on how to solve the problem of summing up the electricity to the country house.