any user forumhouse.ru knows that water and heat - is the foundation of any life support at home, because this depends on the comfort of living in the country.
So, in this article we will discuss the main aspects of your home water and heat, namely:
- How to start a variety of water supply systems and heating systems, and what are the requirements for the boiler room;
- What are the mandatory components of a modern water supply system of a private house;
- What is the essence of water treatment;
- What is best to use the tube for water and heating systems;
- How to choose the boiler and fuel;
- What are the main types of heating systems.
How to start a variety of heating and water supply?
Experience shows that when building a house is first necessary to carefully calculate all the components and the design of your future home.
CEO GWD Engineering Nikolai lain:
- About installation of engineering systems need to reflect more on the stage of the architectural design of the house, cottage
on SNIP room for gas boilers must be at least 15m3, ceilings not less than 2.5 meters.Required area window glazing, should be equal to 0.03 for the boiler room.If the architect did not consider these requirements, problems with gasification facility are guaranteed.
This wall of the building, which is attached to the boiler room must have a limit fire resistance of at least 0,75ch and overlap the boiler must be made of noncombustible materials.
CEO and "house engineering systems" Anatoly Gurin :
- It is important to remember that the size technical room or boiler room must provide free placement of equipment with the possibility of further service.
As well as comply with all the requirements of the gas supply (if you intend to gas heating) organization and fire control.
If the boiler has been built with violations of the above requirements, then it will lead to additional restructuring of the material costs.
A to determine the requirements for the water system, it is first necessary:
- determine the category House and the requirement for its regular supply - cottage for permanent residence, cottage, summer house.
There is no need to carry out central water supply in a small house, if you can get water and well .
- identify possible sources of water in your area - the river, well, borehole, central water supply.
In this case the reliability of the water source.Well may dry out and become clogged wells, water does not provide the required water pressure.
- determine the availability of each source - the depth of the aquifer, and its distance from the house.
- determine the water quality at the source, by making its analysis.If the water is not drinkable, then this will directly depend on the choice of water treatment systems - a simple mechanical filters or a full system cleaning.
The worse the water the more expensive water treatment system.
components of the water system
most famous sources for water wells and boreholes are considered.
Well.Is simple device ( you can dig yourself ) and relative cheapness.
is best suited well to supply water to a small house or villa seasonal residence.When digging a well, be aware that a high groundwater table may lead to contamination of water in it, and money spent on its further purification, significantly exceed the initial cost of the device well.
wells are divided into three types:
- Artesian.The depth of 100 meters or more.
considered the most expensive, because when the device requires drilling operations using special equipment.Because of the depth of the device do not require downhole pumping equipment, providing lift clean water under pressure. often for drilling such wells must obtain a special permit.
- wells up to 50 meters.
for lifting water is necessary to use a submersible pump installed in the well.The water from such wells, unlike artesian, require installation of filtration systems.
- Abyssinian, or as they are called precast wells.A depth of not more than 15 meters.
well suited for devices in remote locations, such as a hole can be made even in the technical room houses already built, but due to the small diameter of the pipe in a hole can not be installed submersible pump for lifting water pumping station should be used.
Once the choice was made in favor of a water source, you must:
- Select water lifting system - submersible pump or pumping station.
should be remembered that the pumping station provides lift water from a depth of 10 meters.Furthermore, unlike the submersible pump, such station operates quite noisy, which requires recourse to additional soundproofing technical room.Either place the pump station in a separate annex.
- determine the power of the downhole pump.For this it is necessary to calculate the rate of flow.
flow rate - is one of the main characteristics of any well.With the help of well flow rate can be calculated for a maximum amount of water it gives the unit time.Flow rate is usually measured in liters or cubic meters per minute.
- Calculate the volume of water consumption in the building and choose the necessary parameters of the pump.
Civil Engineer Oleg Dunayev :
- If the house is habitable, and staying there around the clock, the water must be calculated from the total number of residents, and all points of consumption.
- We select the accumulator.
accumulator is needed to maintain the water supply system of constant pressure water that is typically from 2.5 to 3 atmospheres.Also, the accumulator reduces the number of starts of the pump equipment.
- Determine the water treatment system consisting of coarse and fine filters of water purification.
Oleg Dunayev :
- According to the analysis of water purification method is selected it.For example, removal of rust in a simpler form, can be carried out by filtration through obezzhelezivayuschie replaceable cartridge filters, or, in a more expensive way to set a complete water treatment plant and a water softener.
Then, based on all of the above data, you must select the pipe fittings - consisting of pipes, fittings and manifolds.
Choice pipes for water supply and heating
when installing water systems and heating systems special attention should be paid to the selection of pipes.
- Basic materials for pipes is:
Of the benefits of such a pipe can be distinguished durability and corrosion resistance.Among the disadvantages of high cost and complexity of installation.
These pipes are durable and long-lasting, but can rust and difficult to install.
- Stainless Steel
have a long service life and ease of installation.
Plastics can be made of the following materials:
- Polypropylene PP-R and PP-RCT;
- heat-resistant polyethylene PERT or PERT2;
- cross-linked polyethylene PEX type a, b, or c;
- pipes can be reinforced or not.
For autonomous heating and water supply best price / result, use the multi-layered tube of the type of cross-linked polyethylene PEX / AL / PEX.
When laying the supply pipe the water to the house should be remembered that in winter, the water in it could freeze.There are three solutions to this problem:
- insulated pipe enclosing it in a special heat-insulating sheath;
- Lay the pipe to a depth below the freezing point;
For the suburbs, this value is 1.5 meters.
- use heating electrical cable.
Choosing a heating system
So where do you start when choosing a heating system for your home?
- all begins with determining the source of energy.Most often it is natural gas.If the gas is not present, a lot of options:
- solid fuel;
- liquefied gas;
Let us consider each of the options.
- Gas heating.
is one of the cheapest and convenient fuels for heating private houses, as the process of combustion in the boiler responds well to automation and control.
But all of the above is true only on the condition that the gas pipe has been placed in your home because the price of gas connection or pipe laying may be unnecessarily high.
- solid fuel.Despite the availability of coal, wood or peat briquettes should be remembered that the solid fuel boilers, require regular batch of fuel, and the process of their work difficult or impossible to automate, which directly affects the level of comfort of living in the house.
Solid fuel boilers often set as a backup heat source in case of power failure or the main boiler.Also, when installed high demands to the chimney, or will not be created thrust required for the flue.
- Electricity.It is considered one of the most expensive types of heating systems, but has the advantages of convenience, high efficiency performance and ease of installation of the equipment.When you install electric boilers do not have such strict requirements as using gas or solid fuel boilers.There is no need to do a special boiler and chimney.Electric boilers are relatively inexpensive, compact (you can hang on the wall) and they are silent in operation.
When choosing the electric boiler must be remembered that it is often for house heating boilers are only suitable three-phase capacity of more than 12 kW / 380 V, and is not at all sites has a dedicated three-phase line of 15 kW or more.Alternating elektrokotёl capacity of less than 12 kW / 220Volt suitable only for heating small and well-insulated house with an area up to 100 sq
- liquid fuel.Diesel oil, fuel oil.Boilers running on this type of fuel, respond well to the process automation.But because of the constant rise in energy prices, the use of oil-fired boiler requires competent calculation.
important to know that there are oil boilers with interchangeable burners, which means that a boiler can easily rearrange to work on the main gas or LPG.
Previously, the boiler output can be calculated using the following formula: 1 kW heating costs of 10 square meters.m. The well-insulated room.
- boiler chosen only after teploraschёta as the required power can figure out just knowing the heat loss.The same principle is chosen when designing the boiler system as a whole.There are two main types:
scheme with double-boiler.In this case, the hot water heat exchanger located directly in the boiler.This scheme is applicable for stays of 3-4 family members.
Pros: It occupies a small space in the boiler room.The equipment is much less expensive respect to the system with a water heater of indirect heating.
Cons: A little hot water produced, sensitive to water quality.
Single-circuit boilers with indirect heating boiler.In this case placed near the boiler water boiler in which hot water is heated.The required amount is selected in the design.This scheme is a more comfortable and durable as the reserve allows the use of hot water the water for 5-6 users, and it is absolutely not sensitive to water quality.
- before selecting the boiler and heating system, respectively, it is necessary to make an analysis of the water and find out whether the alleged boiler to work with her.
example, wall double boilers may not work properly with hard water, becausethe heat exchanger is clogged with salts of rigidity and often requires washing or replacement.
Ideal for heating and water supply is a single-loop boiler with indirect heating boiler, free-standing or built-in.
Types of heating systems
After the boiler has been chosen and the type of fuel, it is necessary to understand - on the basis of the principle will be heating in the house, so - and what requirements will apply to the project of the heating system.
- There are two fundamentally different types of heating systems: air and classical - water.
Although air heating system is not so popular in our country, in Europe, need to know that the principle of its operation is based on the forced circulation of warm air in the room , heated via a heat exchanger and fed through the system of channels in the room.
- In most cases, this system is paired with warm floor.The air heating system often integrated system of air - ventilation, humidification and air conditioning.
The advantages of such a system include:
- lack of coolant, and therefore no problem with leaks or freezing system.
- High system efficiency - about 90%.
- Comfortable atmosphere in the room as warm air rises from the bottom up.
Water heating system for town houses, in turn divided into: a double pipe ( a passing ) and collector ( deadlock ).
- pipe system consists of two tubes ( supply and return ) that are on the perimeter of the building.Data highways and connect radiators.
- collector system is considered more reliable, since the installation uses only one piece of the pipe, that is, there are no joints.
In view of this particular system is more expensive.
The advantages of water heating are:
- water - this is an affordable and effective coolant.
In the case of frost or off the heating system, for example due to a fault of the boiler, the water can freeze and break the heating pipes.To avoid this, the heating system is filled with a special low-freezing coolant - antifreeze.
- After filling the system with water, its volume remains the same.
- Ease of maintenance and repair of the system.
In conclusion, it is worth noting that the choice of heating systems and water requires careful calculation and competent installation, only if your vacation home will be really comfortable and modern housing.
pump or pumping station?Can be cheap electricity heating?The answer to this question, you will learn from the corresponding threads on the forum.And from this a movie you will learn all the secrets of air heating of a country house.