Wiring in the house begins with its drawing up a detailed plan.Smart circuit at the initial stage will allow to calculate the number of necessary wires, outlets, switches, junction boxes and other equipment, and to ensure the quality of their installation.Later wiring diagram more than once useful to the owner for maintenance and repairs domestic electricians.
Mapping and calculation of load on the network - not an easy task.Many decisions have to be made individually, but if you follow the general rules, the establishment of a working, safe and efficient electrical forces for any homeowner.Rich user experience FORUMHOUSE - proof.
Often the planning and installation electricians begin to chart the switchboard.User FORUMHOUSE
Kostya Ivanov believes this approach is not the most convenient and offers the paint scheme, building on the "technical points" - the required number of sockets, switches, etc.This result allows to determine the necessary number of shields in "automatic", and protec
tive devices (RCD).
layout of the electrical wiring is better to start after the plumbing and heating systems.Otherwise you may have, for example, that the boiler is required to establish where the electrical panel is already mounted.
So, we need a detailed drawing of a house or apartment with all the facilities in need of electrification.Needed is a detailed plan: drawing describing only the outline and load-bearing walls, will give nothing, because in reality, then it is necessary to lay the wires on all the walls, and not just the carriers. So your drawing should show all partitions, partitions and doors.Such a detailed drawing to avoid errors.
In the drawing, you first need to display all of the location of the distribution boards and boxes, switches and sockets for appliances.
- On the plane home we arrange outlet points for heavy loads (oven, air conditioning and so on. D.) Loads with sensitive protective equipment (dishwasher, washing machine outlet on the street) and continuous duty loads (pump station, boiler,alarm).Each of these devices must have an individual line from the panel.Each such line is selected its protection.
- divide house plan into separate zones (denoted in the diagram different backgrounds).On each line - no more than two premises.Ceiling light do not separate from the outlets: room is completely off.This approach allows us to reduce financial costs and reduces the likelihood of drill wire, because the number of wires on the walls decreases.
- Next "we arrange" the basic furniture and throwing outlet.We try to list all the equipment that will be used in the room.Somewhere a window air conditioner available, desk, bedside table or wall lamp, switch socket for the vacuum cleaner.Then "we arrange" furniture in a different order and add outlets.
- Sockets one color zone are summarized in a common line, which pull to the nearest visor.Thus, the flaps are new machines and RCD.
- On the plane home we arrange fixtures and switches.Some lamps (eg street at the entrance) it is desirable to connect through communicating switches.
Kostya Ivanov :
- On my circuit overhead light and socket are combined.Each color corresponds to a zone of light with their switches.Therefore other lines to the shield is added.If you want to separate the light from the upper outlet, do additional image with another color separation at home, combine the different areas in the group and drag the new line to the panel.Then the shields will further machines and RCD.
In the above scheme is not placed boxes: their location may depend on whether the combined overhead light with sockets or not.Try to place boxes in accessible places - in case you have to open them, such as "proring" cable.So, it is not necessary to place the box under tiles or in places where it may be standing cabinet or other heavy furniture that will block access.The boxes can be installed in the corridor walls there, as a rule, without making furniture.
outlets in the organization there is a problem: usually one immediately knows where and how the furniture will stand.Therefore, it makes sense to "arrange" for the scheme in the different furniture options and make the socket under each option.
Kostya Ivanov :
- Someone will say that eight sockets per room - too much.Let overkill, but it's nice when there is no extension cords do not hang, and the extra outlet still be closed furniture.However, each outlet is worth the money, so you decide ...
As a result, after the settlement of "technical points" you will know all the expected line of wiring, their number and the necessary protection.Now you can figure out how to simplify shields combining several lines under common RCD, add the opening machines and selective RCD - and the plan of electrical panel is ready.
important issue in the preparation of wiring diagrams - the number of switchboards.Some believe the irrational use multiple boards instead of one-two for the house and garage.Others, however, believe that it is much more convenient to have, in addition to the main input distribution device, even simplistic panels - for example, for individual floors and ancillary buildings.
- I plan on each floor of your shield, in the garage - a plus main switchboard in the hall, to be able to the second floor and attic entirely bottom off.It's easier to hide a small shield on each floor rather than one big one place.And it will be easier to explain if necessary, by phone to his wife, "open the door and check all the machines in the series," than to explain, "the fifth machine in the third row on the right."
number of boards - an individual matter and depends on the size, layout, interior house and the load on the grid.But in any case, the purpose of each machine and the RCD in each panel should be clear and understandable to sign, for example, using a permanent marker.
most difficult part of the scheme - the kitchen.The number of lines, the location of the sockets and boxes are the most dependent on the amount of future furniture and household appliances.And, as a rule, at the time of wiring few people knows exactly how the furniture is arranged, and which technique will be used.So initially, you can make the kitchen three or four lines and leave the stock wiring - to the time when it's clear with the placement of furniture and equipment.
Positioning kitchen line is best below the tables.Better go up if only one wire: to extract outlet, and vertically.The socket will serve as a reference.
If the kitchen is made to order, it is necessary to demand from the furniture makers drawing arrangement outlets or, at least, a common kitchen with the size of the drawing table and a place for a cooker and dishwasher.On this basis, and will arrange sockets and junction boxes (typically the number of lines).Boxes, again, to be located in easily accessible locations.
separate story - electrical planning for a garage or basement.If you suspect that your garage is only light and a pair of outlets for vacuum cleaner and charger - seems to be no sense to put a single shield.But it is possible that over time will be in the garage welding equipment, drill or lathe, automatic gates.Yes, and for outdoor works good place in the garage additional outlet ....Think how "swell" your main panel, if all the garage you will lead the line from him, and how much cable you need to stretch.So maybe it is better to put in the garage is not just a guard, and guard with a margin for additional items?Similarly, taking into account possible changes should be legible and basement, and other auxiliary buildings.
Discussion of draft schemes cabling and switchboards - in this section of the forum.Recommendations for creating electrical wiring in the home search in this topic.In this forum thread users share their experiences of creating wiring diagrams and distribution accounts for specific examples.How to increase the power by an inverter, can be obtained from this content.