One of the main conditions for a comfortable life in the country - providing a reliable source of water cottage.
We have already talked to users of our site on the main aspects of the choice of water supply and heating private house.
Despite widespread wells, most homeowners want to have a stable source of water.
example - artesian well.
understand the features of the house water supply on the basis of this well will help you professionals FORUMHOUSE!
from our material, you'll learn:
- What requirements must meet the power supply of a country house?
- What are the types of wells?
- What determines the depth of drilling artesian well?
- What are the requirements to the site and place a water well drilling?
- Should drilling artesian well in the winter?
- What is the casing?
- How to choose a pump for the well?
- What is caisson and downhole adapter?
- How to start a variety of water treatment system?
Choose source of water supply for a country house
Unlike urban apartments with a centralized wate
Expert Company BIIKS Dmitry Polyashenko:
- key parameter comfortable life in the country - it is a constant and stable supply of water required daily volume.
Just when selecting the type of water source should be noted that a safe operation of these important systems of a country house, like hot water, heating and sanitation depends on the efficiency and reliability of power supply.
Deputy Technical Director «Akvabur» Eugene Kasatkin:
- In the absence of a centralized system vodosnabzheniyaneobhodim water source that does not require additional costs for the entire period of its use.
There are 4 basic types of self-contained power supply:
- Well - is a hydraulic structure of the stacked concrete rings, buried in the ground to a depth of aquifer sloya.Kolodtsy widely used because of the simplicity and relative cheapnessdevice.Among the main drawbacks of the well can be identified: seasonal fluctuation of the water level (an unstable flow rate) and a high probability of falling into the water pollutants, such as sewage pits or septic tanks.
flow rate - is one of the main characteristics of the water source of a country house.Flow rate indicates the maximum number of water source can give a conditional unit of time.Flow rate is typically measured in m3 / h or l / min.
- Abyssinian well, or "well-needle."Abyssinian well is a tube with a diameter of 1 inch, with a filter at the end, which is hammered into the ground shock rod to a depth of 15 meters.For pumping water from these wells is used superficial self-priming pump.This type of pump, due to the physical laws, can not lift water from a depth of more than 8 meters, which imposes certain restrictions on the use of such wells.
About advantages and disadvantages of Abyssinian wells can be found this article .
- sandy water wells ("well on the sand") - drilled screw in loose and soft soil, its depth - 50 m. The volume of water - flow rate of 0.5-1.0 cubic meters / hour, that allows to solveonly the basic needs of a family of 2-3 people.The presence of sand in the water intake of the different fractions requires the use of a strainer.Fine sand particles clog the filter as a result of the well silting and requires periodic pumping and cleaning.The level of water in the sand lenses is unstable and may well dry up.
- Drilling "on the sand" is made to the nearest aquifer, located in sandy soil at a depth of 15-30 m. The discharge of such wells is typically less than 1 m3 / h.
- Artesian well drilled special chisel able to pass through solid rock.Artesian water is deep-seated in the fractured limestones.Fine particles in this water there is, therefore, in contrast to the sandy, well on limestone is not silting and does not require constant pumping.This well is not subject to seasonal fluctuations in water level.
- Artesian well structurally complicated and expensive wells "in the sand."But the average life of wells in limestone is 25-40 years or more, and the sand - just 5-7 years.
Artesian well throughout the year is equally high and stable yield, which is not affected by frost or drought.Since
limestone aquifer is separated from the surface of a thick layer of waterproof clay (which becomes a natural filter), the water in artesian wells are protected from any natural and man-made pollution.
- Drilling of artesian wells made up the limestone aquifer.
artesian wells flow rate ranges from 2 to 25 m3 / h.
Choosing water source country house in the first place, depends on the expected volume of water consumption, the requirements for its quality and composition of the soil at the site.
Features drilling artesian wells
depth drilling ("on the sand" or artesian) depends on the type of aquifer.The average depth of the water-bearing sands in the suburbs range from 10 to 45 m. The limestone aquifer can be found at depths ranging from 20 to 250 m.
- To determine the depth of drilling should focus on geological research data.
- Water-bearing sands are unpredictable.This increases the risk of exploration (dry) drilling, where the water is not found, and you have redrille well.
Sand wells should be spread as far as possible from each other so as not to lower the water level.
In contrast to the well "on the sand" artesian wells can be drilled anywhere in the area.
not recommended to place the well next to the roadway and the pedestrian zone.
If the site is uneven, it is not necessary to place well at the lowest point - becausein the spring, when snow melts, it may be difficult to access hatch caisson.
That's why choosing a place for the artesian well is better still at the stage of designing the house.
also need to plan in advance the location of outbuildings, drainage, sewerage and drainage well for the future.This approach allows to optimize the location of the water source in the area, and hence reduce the cost of equipping an artesian well.
example: reducing the length of the pipe from the well to the taps will reduce the volume and cost of materials, excavation and installation works.
If artesian well drilled in managed area, with already elevated house should pre-select a place in the drilling and provide free transportation to the drilling rig jobs.
- water wells drilled only in the open, at a minimum distance of 3 m to the nearest structure.For maintenance and repair must have free passage to the well drilling machine and access to the head.It is difficult to implement, if the site is densely built up and planted with trees.Sometimes even have to temporarily remove the section of the fence.
General requirements for the technical platform for the drilling of artesian wells are:
- drilling required free space measuring 4x12 m;
- entrance gate - a width of not less than 3 m;
- slope of the area should not exceed 15 deg .;
- derrick height - 10 m, so it should be verified will not be affected by whether the branches or wires of power supply;
- well should be located at least 3 meters from the house, 50-100 meters from cesspools and waste dumps.
- Need technical platform - for entry and installation art.It is necessary to make sure in advance that in the place to drill no underground utilities, which can be damaged during work and passage of heavy machinery.
from developers often the question arises: Is it possible to drill artesian well in the winter, and whether it gives any advantage?
- Drilling winter has its advantages - no big queues at the drilling crews.Frozen ground at the site is guaranteed to support the weight of heavy drilling rig, the wheels of the truck smash topsoil.The only limitation - the work is not carried out in the cold below -15 C. Becausedrilling is made with limestone washing, the water freezes, making it difficult to work.
Construction of artesian wells
drilling artesian wells - a high-tech method of providing water country house.
important element is the artesian well casing.
- Casing - a design that does not allow the walls of the borehole collapse.Depending on the geology, using either metal or plastic casing.
- Casing performs several important functions:
- strengthens the walls of the well;
- covers intermediate aquifers;
- well protected from ingress of surface and groundwater.
In most cases the casing is made of steel.The most common type - seam steel pipe.A more reliable, but more expensive, seamless steel tubes.
To prolong the life of the well inside the steel casing is inserted into a plastic tube (production string) of HDPE or PVC.If after 30-40 years in the steel casing corrosion crack appears, or fistula, plastic protect well water from contamination.
The solid rocky soil where there is no progress seams on small and medium depths, you can use thick plastic casing.But in fragile soils plastic pipe is likely to be crushed or broken, resulting in lost and the well and the pump.
Not recommended plant around the well galvanized or asbestos cement pipes, even in spite of their low cost.Zinc walled tubes and exposed to rust since their thickness is less than twice the standard steel casing.Asbestos cement fragile.Chemical compounds of zinc and asbestos are dangerous to human health.
The next step is to choose the arrangement of the well pump and water-raising equipment.
- The pump is selected on the basis of the requirements for the amount of water wells and passports.
passport well in indicate the most important characteristics of a well - geological section, depth, diameter of the casing, well performance, static and dynamic levels.
only properly selected and installed a pump able to fully unlock the potential of the well.
pump is lowered into the well to a depth of 10 meters below the dynamic water level.
Such depth ensures that in times of peak water consumption, when the dynamic level drops relative to the maximum value of the static, the pump will be in the water.
Based on the practice of drilling wells in the suburbs, all the problems of individual water supply at home for permanent residence can be solved by an artesian well, lined steel pipe with a diameter of 133 mm and a pump capacity of up to 3 cubic meters / h.
selection and installation of the pump - this is only part of the tasks of well completion and commissioning of water into the house.
- When the drilling is finished, on the ground remains a pipe (30-40 cm).
It is usually a temporary lid closed.Now you need to decide - where to install pumping equipment.
- If the pump is lowered into the well, the pumping equipment (hydraulic tank, automatic control, piping, valves and fittings) are mounted on the surface.
There are two variants of arrangement of water-raising equipment:
1. The caisson - a steel, welded, sealed with insulation and construction, is installed underground.Caisson protects the well from getting polluted surface water and groundwater, and the well head and pumping equipment - from freezing and tampering.
When using insulated caisson can arrange water supply before building a house.
2. Adapter - a small metal a dual design, the task of which is connected to the pipe from the pump to the pipe going to the house of the taps.The adapter is used with a high level of groundwater.Prevalence adapter due to its low price and a small volume of earthworks.However, the adapter is inconvenient for maintenance or repair of wells, as installed at a depth below the freezing point, and in a normal situation hidden layer of soil.
- And the caisson, and the adapter is equally reliable.If there is a technical room - the basement or boiler room, it is possible to install the adapter and all the pumping equipment to put in the house.If such space is not, there is not enough space, or want to reduce the level of noise produced by his work, that all the equipment is placed in the caisson.
final stage of internal work is a device for supplying the pipeline in the cottage.
- Inlet water pipe from the well to the house is laid on the bottom of the trench.The trench is dug to a depth below freezing.
Before entering the house the last few meters of the pipe brought to the surface and protect from freezing fueling the electric cable.If the feed pipe is introduced into the house from the street is not over the wall and under the foundation through the basement, the heating cable is not needed.
After completion of wells need to choose a system of water purification.
- Quality indicators of natural water is not always comply with the applicable health and safety standards.Since
composition of water may vary significantly in different areas, only an analysis of the water allows you to choose individual filtration system and water treatment.There is no need to install complicated and expensive water treatment system, if on the basis of analyzes it turns out that you can do a simple filter system.
Unlike other sources of water in artesian wells is stable composition throughout the entire period of operation.Therefore, once is enough to carry out chemical and bacteriological analysis of the water to pick up a water treatment system, which was then not have to be complementary to other filtration equipment.
What to choose - well or well?The answer to this question FORUMHOUSE users will find in this branch.Learn how to check the quality of the wells can be found here.Any errors in the construction of the wells are collected here.
Learn how to choose the pumping station can be in this topic.About whether or not to permit the drilling of artesian wells, described in this section.